Malus domestica
Main compound(s): 4-Caffeoylquinic acid, 3-Hydroxyphloretin 2'-O-glucoside, 4-p-Coumaroylquinic acid, 5-Caffeoylquinic acid, 5-p-Coumaroylquinic acid, Caffeic acid, Coumarins, Cyanidin 3-O-arabinoside, Cyanidin 3-O-xyloside, Epicatechin, Ferulic acid, Gentisic acid, Hyperoside, Ideain, Isoquercetrin, Phloretin 2'-O-xylosyl-glucoside, Phloridzin, Procyanidin B2, Quercetin, Quercetin 3-O-arabinoside, Quercetin 3-O-xyloside, Quercitrin, Rutin, Syringic acid
Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.
Gerhauser C
Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.
Antimicrobial effect of polyphenols from apple skins on human bacterial pathogens
María Rosa Alberto, Matías Andrés Rinsdahl Canavosio, María Cristina Manca de Nadra
Apples possess many beneficial properties for the human health related with their high content in phenolic compounds. The antimicrobial effect of these compounds from the skin of two apple varieties, Royal Gala and Granny Smith, against human pathogens was examined. The phenolic compounds were extracted with the following solvents: A, acetone: water: acetic acid, B, ethyl acetate: methanol: water and C, ethanol: water. Total phenolic, flavonoid and non-flavonoid contents were analyzed in the extracts. The antimicrobial effect was determined using the agar diffusion method. The highest inhibitory effect of both apple varieties corresponded to extract A, which contained a high phenolic content. The Granny Smithextracts with higher phenolic content presented a superior antimicrobial effect against the selected microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Listeria monocytogenes. The most sensitive microorganisms were Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, whereas the most resistant strains wereEscherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Escherichia coli. The results obtained demonstrate a direct relationship between the phenolic content of the extracts and the antimicrobial effect.
Elder berry
Sambucus nigra
Main compound(s): Callistephin, Cyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside, Cyanidin glycosides, Cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, Cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside, Cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside 5-O-glucoside, Quercetin
Incorporation of the elderberry anthocyanins by endothelial cells increases protection against oxidative stress
Kuresh Ayoudim, AntonioMartin, James Ajoseph
The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of endothelial cells (EC) to incorporate anthocyanins and to examine their potential benefits against various oxidative stressors. Endothelial dysfunction has been proposed to play an important role in the initiation and development of vascular disease, with studies having shown that administration of antioxidants improves endothelial function. Elderberry extract contains 4 anthocyanins, which where incorporated into the plasma membrane and cytosol of EC following 4 h incubation at 1 However, incorporation within the cytosol was considerably less than that in the membrane. Uptake within both regions appeared to be structure dependent, with monoglycoside concentrations higher than that of the diglucosides in both compartments. The enrichment of EC with elderberry anthocyanins conferred significant protective effects in EC against the following oxidative stressors: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 2,2?-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), and FeSO4/ascorbic acid (AA). These results show for the first time that vascular EC can incorporate anthocyanins into the membrane and cytosol, conferring significant protective effects against oxidative insult. These findings may have important implications on preserving EC function and preventing the initiation of EC changes associated with vascular diseases.
Advanced research on the antioxidant and health benefit of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in food – a review
AndrzejSidor, AnnaGramza-Michałowska
Elderberry plant (Sambucus nigra) is a good source of protein, free and conjugated forms of amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, fibre fractions, vitamins, antioxidants and minerals. Analysis of elderberry showed that it contains high biological activity components, primarily polyphenols, mostly anthocyanins, flavonols, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins, as well as terpenes and lectins. In folk medicine, elderberry has been used in the treatment of many diseases and ailments. Elderberry has medicinal properties associated with the presence of polyphenols, which are compounds with potential antioxidant properties. They can greatly affect the course of disease processes by counteracting oxidative stress, exerting beneficial effects on blood pressure, glycaemia reduction, immune system stimulation, antitumour potential, increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the blood plasma, including also glutathione, and the reduction of uric acid levels.
Juniper berry
Juniperus communis
Main compound(s): Pyrogallol
Study of cytotoxic activity, podophyllotoxin, and deoxypodophyllotoxin content in selected Juniperus species cultivated in Poland.
Och M, Och A, Cieśla Ł, Kubrak T, Pecio Ł, Stochmal A, Kocki J, Bogucka-Kocka A.
CONTEXT: The demand for podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin is still increasing and commercially exploitable sources are few and one of them, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae), is a "critically endangered" species. OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to quantify the amount of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin in 61 Juniperus (Cupressaceae) samples. Cytotoxic activity of podophyllotoxin and ethanolic leaf extracts of Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. "Blue Pacific" and Juniperus communis L. "Depressa Aurea" was examined against different leukemia cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was performed with the use of a Waters ACQUITY UPLC(TM) system (Waters Corp., Milford, MA). The peaks of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin were assigned on the basis of their retention data and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Trypan blue assay was performed to obtain IC50 cytotoxicity values against selected leukemia cell lines. RESULTS: Juniperus scopulorum was characterized with the highest level of podophyllotoxin (486.7 mg/100 g DW) while Juniperus davurica Pall. contained the highest amount of deoxypodophyllotoxin (726.8 mg/100 g DW). Podophyllotoxin IC50 cytotoxicity values against J45.01 and CEM/C1 leukemia cell lines were 0.0040 and 0.0286 µg/mL, respectively. Juniperus scopulorum extract examined against J45.01 and HL-60/MX2 leukemia cell lines gave the respective IC50 values: 0.369-9.225 µg/mL. Juniperus communis extract was characterized with the following IC50 cytotoxity values against J45.01 and U-266B1 cell lines: 3.310-24.825 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Juniperus sp. can be considered as an alternative source of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin. Cytotoxic activity of podophyllotoxin and selected leaf extracts of Juniperus sp. against a set of leukemia cell lines was demonstrated. CONTEXT: The demand for podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin is still increasing and commercially exploitable sources are few and one of them, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae), is a "critically endangered" species. OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to quantify the amount of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin in 61 Juniperus (Cupressaceae) samples. Cytotoxic activity of podophyllotoxin and ethanolic leaf extracts of Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. "Blue Pacific" and Juniperus communis L. "Depressa Aurea" was examined against different leukemia cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was performed with the use of a Waters ACQUITY UPLC(TM) system (Waters Corp., Milford, MA). The peaks of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin were assigned on the basis of their retention data and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Trypan blue assay was performed to obtain IC50 cytotoxicity values against selected leukemia cell lines. RESULTS: Juniperus scopulorum was characterized with the highest level of podophyllotoxin (486.7 mg/100 g DW) while Juniperus davurica Pall. contained the highest amount of deoxypodophyllotoxin (726.8 mg/100 g DW). Podophyllotoxin IC50 cytotoxicity values against J45.01 and CEM/C1 leukemia cell lines were 0.0040 and 0.0286 µg/mL, respectively. Juniperus scopulorum extract examined against J45.01 and HL-60/MX2 leukemia cell lines gave the respective IC50 values: 0.369-9.225 µg/mL. Juniperus communis extract was characterized with the following IC50 cytotoxity values against J45.01 and U-266B1 cell lines: 3.310-24.825 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Juniperus sp. can be considered as an alternative source of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin. Cytotoxic activity of podophyllotoxin and selected leaf extracts of Juniperus sp. against a set of leukemia cell lines was demonstrated.
Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.
Gumral N, Kumbul DD, Aylak F, Saygin M, Savik E.
It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats, and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats.
Lemon peel
Citri pericarp.
Main compound(s): Eriodictyol, Hesperetin, Naringenin, Nobiletin, Quercetin, Secoisolariciresinol
Polymethoxy flavones are responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus fruit peel
Yung-Sheng Huang, Su-ChenHo
In traditional Chinese medicine, dried citrus fruit peels are widely used as remedies to alleviate some respiratory inflammatory syndromes and are considered as potential sources of anti-inflammatory components. Seven citrus fruits were selected for this study. We determined the inhibitory ability of citrus peel extracts on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Among the tested citrus peels, Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and Tonkan (Citrus tankan Hayata) deserve special attention due to their outstanding inhibitory effect on PGE2 and NO secretion. We have also examined the composition, flavanone glycosides and polymethoxy flavones. The polymethoxy flavone content, especially nobiletin, appears to correlate well with the anti-inflammatory activities of certain citrus peel extracts. Thus, our results suggest that polymethoxy flavones contribute crucially to the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peels.
Rosa canina
Main compound(s): Ellagic acid, Quercetin
Inhibitory effect of rose hip (Rosa canina L.) on melanogenesis in mouse melanoma cells and on pigmentation in brown guinea pigs.
Fujii T, Ikeda K, Saito M.
The compounds present in rose hips exerting an inhibitory action against melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells were investigated by dividing an aqueous extract of rose hips (RE) into four fractions. The 50% ethanol eluate from a DIAION HP-20 column significantly reduced the production of melanin and was mainly composed of procyanidin glycosides. We also found that this 50% ethanol eluate reduced the intracellular tyrosinase activity and also had a direct inhibitory effect on tyrosinase obtained as a protein mixture from the melanoma cell lysate. We also investigated the effect of orally administering RE on skin pigmentation in brown guinea pigs, and found that the pigmentation was inhibited together with the tyrosinase activity in the skin. These data collectively suggest that proanthocyanidins from RE inhibited melanogenesis in mouse melanoma cells and guinea pig skin, and could be useful as a skin-whitening agent when taken orally.
Vaccinium myrtillus
Main compound(s): Coumarins, Ferulic acid, Malvidin, Quercetin, Resveratrol
Blueberry and malvidin inhibit cell cycle progression and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by abrogating the JAK/STAT-3 signalling pathway.
Baba AB, Nivetha R, Chattopadhyay I, Nagini S.
Blueberries, a rich source of anthocyanins have attracted considerable attention as functional foods that confer immense health benefits including anticancer properties. Herein, we assessed the potential of blueberry and its major constituent malvidin to target STAT-3, a potentially druggable oncogenic transcription factor with high therapeutic index. We demonstrate that blueberry abrogates the JAK/STAT-3 pathway and modulates downstream targets that influence cell proliferation and apoptosis in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis. Further, we provide mechanistic evidence that blueberry and malvidin function as STAT-3 inhibitors in the oral cancer cell line SCC131. Blueberry and malvidin suppressed STAT-3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation thereby inducing cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. However, the combination of blueberry and malvidin with the STAT-3 inhibitor S3I-201 was more efficacious in STAT-3 inhibition relative to single agents. The present study has provided leads for the development of novel combinations of compounds that can serve as inhibitors of STAT-mediated oncogenic signalling.
Berries grown in Brazil: anthocyanin profiles and biological properties.
Chaves VC, Boff L, Vizzotto M, Calvete E, Reginatto FH, Sim?es CM
BACKGROUND: Phytochemical profiles of two Brazilian native fruits - pitanga (red and purple) and araçá (yellow and red) - as well as strawberry cultivars Albion, Aromas and Camarosa, blackberry cultivar Tupy and blueberry cultivar Bluegen cultivated in Brazil were characterized for total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content by liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array and a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Radical scavenging, antiherpes and cytotoxic activities of these berry extracts were also evaluated. RESULTS: Blueberry presented the highest total anthocyanin content (1202?mg cyanidin-O-glucoside equivalents kg-1 fresh fruit), while strawberry cultivar Aromas presented the highest total phenolic content (13 550?mg gallic acid equivalents kg-1 fresh fruit). Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis resulted in the identification of 21 anthocyanins. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of cyanidin-O-glucoside in yellow and red Araçá fruit and the first time eight anthocyanins have been reported in pitanga fruits. DPPH and ABTS assays showed that blueberry cultivar Bluegen, blackberry cultivar Tupy and pitanga (red and purple) showed the most promising antiradical activities, respectively. No relevant cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines or antiherpes activity was detected under the experimental conditions tested. CONCLUSION: Total anthocyanin content of all fruits had a strong positive correlation with their free radical scavenging activity, suggesting anthocyanins contribute to the antioxidant potential of these fruits. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
Black cherry peel
Prunus subg. Cerasus
Main compound(s): Anthocyanins, Chlorogenic acid
Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties
Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez, César Ibarra-Alvarado, Alejandra Rojas-Molina, Juana I. Rojas-Molina, Elhadi M. Yahia, Dulce M. Rivera-Pastrana, Adriana Rojas-Molina and Miguel Ángel Zavala-Sánchez
In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidantand antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
Blackcurrant seed and peel
Ribes nigrum
Main compound(s): 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid 4-O-glucoside, 3-p-Coumaroylquinic acid, 3-Feruloylquinic acid, 4-Caffeoylquinic acid, 4-Feruloylquinic acid, 4-p-Coumaroylquinic acid, 5-Caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O-Galloylquinic acid, Astragalin, Caffeic acid 4-O-glucoside, Caffeoyl glucose, Catechin, Delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, Epicatechin, Feruloyl glucose, Ferulic acid glycosides, Gallic acid, Glucogallin, Isoquercetrin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Myricetin 3-O-glucoside, Myricetin 3-O-rutinoside, Neochlorogenic acid, p-Coumaroyl glucose, p-Coumaric acid 4-O-glucoside, Pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside, Peonidin 3-O-rutinoside, Petunidin 3-O-rutinoside, Protocatechuic acid, Quercetin, Rutin, Tulipanin
Effects of a mixed berry beverage on cognitive functions and cardiometabolic risk markers, A randomized cross-over study in healthy older adults.
Nilsson A, Salo I, Plaza M, Björck I.
BACKGROUND: Berries and associated bioactive compounds, e.g. polyphenols and dietary fibre (DF), may have beneficial implications with respect to the metabolic syndrome, including also cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects on cognitive functions and cardiometabolic risk markers of 5 wk intervention with a mixture of berries, in healthy humans. METHODS: Forty healthy subjects between 50-70 years old were provided a berry beverage based on a mixture of berries (150g blueberries, 50g blackcurrant, 50g elderberry, 50g lingonberries, 50g strawberry, and 100g tomatoes) or a control beverage, daily during 5 weeks in a randomized crossover design. The control beverage (water based) was matched with respect to monosaccharides, pH, and volume. Cognitive tests included tests of working memory capacity, selective attention, and psychomotor reaction time. Cardiometabolic test variables investigated were blood pressure, fasting blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, blood lipids, inflammatory markers, and markers of oxidative stress. RESULTS: The daily amounts of total polyphenols and DF from the berry beverage were 795 mg and 11g, respectively. There were no polyphenols or DF in the control beverage. The berry intervention reduced total- and LDL cholesterol compared to baseline (both P<0.05), and in comparison to the control beverage (P<0.005 and P<0.01, respectively). The control beverage increased glucose concentrations (P<0.01) and tended to increase insulin concentrations (P = 0.064) from base line, and increased insulin concentrations in comparison to the berry beverage (P<0.05). Subjects performed better in the working memory test after the berry beverage compared to after the control beverage (P<0.05). No significant effects on the other test variables were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The improvements in cardiometabolic risk markers and cognitive performance after the berry beverage suggest preventive potential of berries with respect to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and associated cognitive decline. Possibly the polyphenols and DF contributed to the beneficial effects.
CONSORT flow diagram of the study progress.
Effect of administrating polysaccharide from black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) on atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.
Ashigai H, Komano Y, Wang G, Kawachi Y, Sunaga K, Yamamoto R, Takata R, Miyake M, Yanai T.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that causes dry skin and functional disruption of the skin barrier. AD is often accompanied by allergic inflammation. AD patient suffer from heavy itching, and their quality of life is severely affected. Some pharmaceuticals for AD have some side effects such as skin atrophy. So it is necessary to develop mild solutions such as food ingredients without side effects. There are various causes of AD. It is especially induced by immunological imbalances such as IFN-? reduction. IFN-? has an important role in regulating IgE, which can cause an allergy reaction. NC/Nga mice develop AD and IgE hyperproduction. In a previous study, we revealed that administration of polysaccharide from black currant (R. nigrum) has an effect on immunomodulation. It induces IFN-? production from myeloid dendritic cells. We named this polysaccharide cassis polysaccharide (CAPS). In this report, we studied the effect of administering CAPS on atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Thirty NC/Nga mice that developed symptoms of atopic dermatitis were used. We divided them into three groups (control, CAPS administration 12 mg/kg/day, CAPS administration 60 mg/kg/day). For 4 weeks, we evaluated clinical score, serum IgE levels, gene expression of spleen, and skin pathology. We revealed that CAPS administration improves atopic dermatitis symptoms. We also found that CAPS administration suppresses IgE hyperproduction and induces IFN-? gene transcription in the spleen. Finally, we confirmed that CAPS administration suppresses mast cell migration to epidermal skin. These results indicated that CAPS has an effect on AD.
Blackberry seed and peel
R. caesius
Main compound(s): 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid 4-O-glucoside, 3-p-Coumaroylquinic acid, 3-Feruloylquinic acid, 4-Caffeoylquinic acid, 5-Caffeoylquinic acid, Caffeoyl glucose, Catechin, Cyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside, Cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, Cyanidin 3-O-xyloside, Ellagic acid, Epicatechin, Epigallocatechin, Feruloyl glucose, Gallic acid, Glucogallin, Hyperoside, Isoquercetrin, Neochlorogenic acid, p-Coumaroyl glucose, p-Coumaric acid 4-O-glucoside, Procyanidin, Procyanidin B1, Procyanidin B2, Procyanidin B3, Procyanidin trimer EEC, Prodelphinidin dimer B3, Protocatechuic acid, Quercetin, Quercetin 3-O-glucosyl-xyloside, Quercetin 3-O-xyloside, Quercetin 3-O-xylosyl-glucuronide, Rutin
In Vitro Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Effects of Extracts from Rubus caesius Leaves and Their Quality Evaluation.
Grochowski DM, Paduch R, Wiater A, Dudek A, Pleszczyńska M, Tomczykowa M, Granica S, Polak P, Tomczyk M.
The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of different extracts and subfractions from Rubus caesius leaves on two human colon cancer cell lines obtained from two stages of the disease progression lines HT29 and SW948. Tested samples inhibited the viability of cells, both HT29 and SW948 lines, in a concentration-dependent manner. The most active was the ethyl acetate fraction which, applied at the highest concentration (250??g/mL), decreased the viability of cells (HT29 and SW948) below 66%. The extracts and subfractions were also investigated for antioxidant activities on DPPH and FRAP assays. All extracts, with the exception of water extract at a dose of 250??g/mL, almost totally reduced DPPH. The highest Fe3+ ion reduction was shown for the diethyl and ethyl acetate fractions. It was more than 6.5 times higher (at a dose 250??g/mL) as compared to the control. The LC-MS studies of the analysed preparations showed that all samples contain a wide variety of polyphenolics, among which ellagitannins turned out to be the main constituents with dominant ellagic acid, sanguiin H-6, and flavonol derivatives.
Hawthorn berry
Crataegi fructus
Main compound(s): Chlorogenic acid, Epicatechin, Hyperoside, Procyanidin, Rutin
Polyphenols from hawthorn peels and fleshes differently mitigate dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in association with modulation of liver injury in high fructose diet-fed mice.
Han X, Li W, Huang D, Yang X.
Hawthorn ingestion is linked to health benefits due to the various polyphenols. The present study investigated the differential effects of polyphenols-enriched extracts from hawthorn fruit peels (HPP) and fleshes (HFP) against liver injury induced by high-fructose diet in mice. It was found that the main species of polyphenols in hawthorn was chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, rutin and hyperoside, and their contents in HPP were all higher than those in HFP. Administration of HPP was better than HFP to alleviate liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis, reflected by the reduction of ALT, AST and ALP activities, as well as the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in mice. Meanwhile, HPP was also more effective than HFP to mitigate liver inflammation and oxidative stress by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine (TNF-?, IL-1 and IL-6) release, and elevating antioxidant enzyme activities and PPAR? expression, while reducing Nrf-2 and ARE expression in mice. Interestingly, HPP-treated mice also showed the lower levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and Apo-B, and the higher levels of HDL-C and Apo-A1 than HFP-treated mice via reducing FAS express. These results together with the histopathology of the liver with H&E and oil red O staining suggest that hawthorn fruit, especially its peel, is an excellent source of natural polyphenolic chemopreventive agents in the treatment of liver disorders.
Punica granatum
Main compound(s): Catechin, Epicatechin, Epigallocatechin, Gallocatechin, Procyanidin B1, Procyanidin B3
Antiproliferative effects of pomegranate extract in MCF-7 breast cancer cells are associated with reduced DNA repair gene expression and induction of double strand breaks.
Shirode AB, Kovvuru P, Chittur SV, Henning SM, Heber D, Reliene R.
Pomegranate extract (PE) inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells and stimulates apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. While PE is a potent antioxidant, the present studies were conducted to examine the mechanisms of action of PE beyond antioxidation by studying cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying breast tumorigenesis. PE inhibited cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest in G2 /M followed by the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and Trolox did not affect cell growth at doses containing equivalent antioxidant capacity as PE, suggesting that growth inhibition by PE cannot solely be attributed to its high antioxidant potential. DNA microarray analysis revealed that PE downregulated genes associated with mitosis, chromosome organization, RNA processing, DNA replication and DNA repair, and upregulated genes involved in regulation of apoptosis and cell proliferation. Both microarray and quantitative RT-PCR indicated that PE downregulated important genes involved in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR), such as MRE11, RAD50, NBS1, RAD51, BRCA1, BRCA2, and BRCC3. Downregulation of HR genes correlated with increased levels of their predicted microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-183 (predicted target RAD50) and miR-24 (predicted target BRCA1), suggesting that PE may regulate miRNAs involved in DNA repair processes. Further, PE treatment increased the frequency of DSBs. These data suggest that PE downregulates HR which sensitizes cells to DSBs, growth inhibition and apoptosis. Because HR represents a novel target for cancer therapy, downregulation of HR by PE may be exploited for sensitization of tumors to anticancer drugs.
Studies on the Cytotoxic Activities of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) Extract on Prostate Cell Line by Induction of Apoptosis.
Sineh Sepehr K, Baradaran B, Mazandarani M, Khori V, Shahneh FZ.
The Punica granatum L. var. granatum (pomegranate) has been demonstrated to exert antitumor effects on various types of cancer cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the medicinal herbs Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (apple punice) that are native to Iran. This study was determined to test the possible cytotoxic activity and induction of apoptosis on human prostate cell lines. The effect of ethanol extracts of the herbs on the inhibition of cell proliferation was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay. PC3 cell lines treated with the extracts were analyzed for the induction of apoptosis by cell death detection (ELISA) and TUNEL assay. Dye exclusion analysis was performed for viability rate. Our results demonstrated that the Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract dose dependently suppressed the proliferation of PC3 cells (IC(50)= 250.21??g/mL) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug (Toxol) (Vesper Pharmaceuticals) with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract attenuated the human prostate cell proliferation in vitro possibly by inducing apoptosis. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa is likely to be valuable for the treatment of some forms of human prostate cell line.
Nuclei morphological changes during Punica granatum spinosa induced apoptosis in PC3 cells detected by TUNEL assay. Tumor cells treated with extract (250??g/mL) were assayed by TUNEL and observed under light microscopy. For PC3 cells group, (a) treated with extract (250??g) for 24?h and (b) show negative control (without treatment).
Hippophae rhamnoides
Main compound(s): Catechin, Epicatechin, Gallic acid, Isoquercetrin, Isorhamnetin, Isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, Isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside 7-O-rhamnoside, Isorhamnetin 7-O-rhamnoside, Narcissin, Protocatechuic acid, Rutin
Antihypertensive effect of total flavones extracted from seed residues of Hippophae rhamnoides L. in sucrose-fed rats.
Pang X, Zhao J, Zhang W, Zhuang X, Wang J, Xu R, Xu Z, Qu W.
The study was designed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of total flavones extracted from seed residues of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (TFH-SR) and its underlying mechanism in chronic sucrose-fed rats by evaluating its ability to regulate insulin and angiotensin || levels. Feeding of high-sucrose diet (HS: 77% of kcal from carbohydrate, 16% from protein and 6% from lipid, respectively) for 6 weeks resulted in significant rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 25.60%, plasma insulin by 114.24%, triglycerides by 85.14% and activated angiotensin || contents in heart and kidney. However, TFH-SR treatment significantly suppressed the elevated hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, TFH-SR (especially at the dose of 150mg/kg/day) increased the circulatory blood angiotensin || level as effective as angiotensin || receptor blocker. These results indicated that TFH-SR exerted its antihypertensive effects at least in part by improving insulin sensitivity and blocking angiotensin || signal pathway. Findings of the present study suggested that TFH-SR might prove to be of potential use in the management of hyperinsulinemia in non-diabetic state with cardiovascular diseases.
Effect of sea buckthorn on liver fibrosis: a clinical study.
Gao ZL, Gu XH, Cheng FT, Jiang FH.
AIM: To appraise the effect of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) on cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Fifty cirrhotic patients of Child-Pugh grade A and B were randomly divided into two groups: Group A as the treated group (n=30), taking orally the sea buckthorn extract, 15 g 3 times a day for 6 months. Group B as the control group (n=18), taking vitamin B complex one tablet, 3 times a day for 6 months. The following tests were performed before and after the treatment in both groups to determine LN, HA, collagens types III and IV, cytokines IL-6 and TNFalpha, liver serum albumin, total bile acid, ALT, AST and prothrombin time. RESULTS: The serum levels of TNFalpha, IL-6, laminin and type IV collagen in group A were significantly higher than those in the control group. After a course of sea buckthorn treatment, the serum levels of LN, HA, collagen types III and IV, total bile acid (TBA) decreased significantly as compared with those before and after treatment in the control group. The sea buckthorn notably shortened the duration for normalization of aminotransferases. CONCLUSION: Sea buckthorn may be a hopeful drug for prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis.
Determination of TNF?, IL-6, LN, HA,. The levels of TNF?, IL-6, LN, collagen type IV in the 50 cirrhotic patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P < 0.05). There were positive correlations between TNF?, IL-6 and LN, collagen type IV
Prunus spinosa
Main compound(s): Anthocyanins, Ellagic acid, Hyperoside, Kaempferol, Proanthocyanidins, Rutin
Phenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracts from Prunus spinosa L. fruit
Jasmina M. Veličković, Danijela A. Kostić, Gordana S. Stojanović, Snežana S. Mitić, Milan N. Mitić, Saša S. Ranđelović, Aleksandra S. Đorđević
Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) is commonly used in food industry and phytotherapy. The contents of phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidative activity in extracts of blackthorn fruit were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The content of total phenol compounds varies from 15.33 to 20.94 mg GAE g of fresh fruit. The content of total flavonoids is very low and ranges from 0.419 to 1.31 mg QE g of fresh fruits. Anthocyanins content lies between 0.112 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/g of fresh sample in ethanol extract and 0.265 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside g of fresh blackthorn fruit in methanolwater 50/50 (V/V) extract. The differences in total phenol compounds content depend on used extraction medium as a consequence of different polarity of used organic solvents and their mixtures, which selectively extract individual compounds. All explored extracts exhibited strong scavenging activity against DPPH radicals, which ranges from 32.05 to 89.10%. Phenolic acids (neochlorogenic and caffeic acids), flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin) and anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside) were identified in investigated ethanol extracts by HPLC analysis. Ethanol extract shows significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Salmonella abony NCTC 6017 and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Blackthorn fruit extract exhibits a high phenolic content and a high antioxidant activity, and can be used as an antioxidant in food and pharmaceutical industries.
dried milled Goji berry
Lycium Barbarum
Main compound(s): Catechin, Ellagic acid, Epicatechin, Gallic acid, Hyperoside, Isoquercetrin, Nicotiflorin, Quercetin, Quercetin 3-diglucoside, Quercitrin, Rutin
Effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on the improvement of antioxidant ability and DNA damage in NIDDM rats.
Wu H, Guo H, Zhao R.
The effects of polysaccharide extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP) on blood glucose, oxidative stress and DNA damage in rats with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied. The results show that LBP treatment (10 mg/kg.d) for 4 weeks led to decreased levels of blood glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in serum of fasting rats, and to increased serum level of superoxidedismutase (SOD). Furthermore, LBP could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes of NIDDM rats. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length and tail moment. These results suggest that LBP can control blood glucose and modulate the metabolism of glucose, leading to significant improvement of oxidative stress markers (SOD, MDA) in rats with NIDDM. And that, LBP decreases DNA damage possibly via a decrease in oxidative stress levels. In conclusion, LBP as a dietary supplement may prevent the development of complications or even tendency to carcinogenesis in NIDDM rats.
Orange peel
Auranthii dulci pericarp.
Main compound(s): Hesperidin, Nobiletin, Tangeritin
Observation of the effects of LAK/IL-2 therapy combining with Lycium barbarum polysaccharides in the treatment of 75 cancer patients.
Cao GW, Yang WG, Du P.
Seventy nine advanced cancer patients in a clinical trial were treated with LAK/IL-2 combining with Lycium Barbarum polysaccharides (LBP). Initial results of the treatment from 75 evaluable patients indicated that objective regression of cancer was achieved in patients with malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, lung cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, malignant hydrothorax. The response rate of patients treated with LAK/IL-2 plus LBP was 40.9% while that of patients treated with LAK/IL-2 was 16.1% (P < 0.05). The mean remission in patients treated with LAK/IL-2 plus LBP also lasted significantly longer. LAK/IL-2 plus LBP treatment led to more marked increase in NK and LAK cell activity than LAK/IL-2 without LBP. The results indicate that LBP can be used as an adjuvant in the biotherapy of cancer.
Flavonoid composition of orange peel and its association with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities
Xiu-MinChenaAndrew R.TaitbDavid D.Kittsa
Dried citrus peel derived from Citrus reticulata, also called “chenpi”, possesses a complex mixture of flavonoids and has a history of traditional use to treat a variety of digestive disorders. We compared three sources of conventional chenpi from California (USA), Guangxi, Zhejiang, and two sources of “nchenpi”, which contain greater nobiletin content, from Sichuan and Xinhui (China). Xinhui orange peel extract (OPE) had highest content of polymethoxylated flavones, along with greatest capacity to scavenge 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-pcrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2?-azobis-2-methyl-propanimidamide, dihydrochloride (AAPH) radicals and nitric oxide (NO). OPE also had higher NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitory activity than an equivalent mixture of flavonoids (P < 0.05). In conclusion, nobiletin is a good chemical marker for assessing the anti-inflammatory potential of OPE from different sources. Obtaining “nchenpi” from either Sichuan or Xinhui provided potentially superior health benefits compared to conventional chenpi sources.
Red currant seed and peel
Ribes rubrum
Main compound(s): 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid 4-O-glucoside, 3-p-Coumaroylquinic acid, 3-Feruloylquinic acid, Caffeic acid, Caffeoyl glucose, Catechin, Cinnamic acid, Cyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside, Cyanidin 3-O-glucosyl-rutinoside, Cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, Cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside, Cyanidin 3-O-sophoroside, Cyanidin 3-O-xylosyl-rutinoside, Delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside, Epicatechin, Epigallocatechin, Gallocatechin, Hydrocinnamic acid, Isoquercetrin, Myricetin 3-O-glucoside, p-Coumaroyl glucose, p-Coumaric acid 4-O-glucoside, Procyanidin B3, Prodelphinidin dimer B3, Protocatechuic acid, Resveratrol, Rutin
Evaluation of red currants (Ribes rubrum l.), black currants (Ribes nigrum l.), red and green gooseberries (Ribes uva-crispa) for potential management of type 2 diabetes and hypertension using in vitro models
Pinto, M. da S. , Kwon, Y. I. , Apostolidis, E. , Lajolo, F. M. , Genovese, M. I. , Shetty, K.
Red currants (Ribes rubrum L.), black currants (Ribes nigrum L.), red and green gooseberries (Ribes uva-crispa) were evaluated for the total phenolics, antioxidant capacity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension. The total phenolics content ranged from 3.2 (green gooseberries) to 13.5 (black currants) mg/g fruit fresh weight. No correlation was found between total phenolics and antioxidant activity. The major phenolic compounds were quercetin derivatives (black currants and green gooseberries) and chlorogenic acid (red currants and red gooseberries). Red currants had the highest ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase and ACE inhibitory activities. Therefore red currants could be good dietary sources with potential antidiabetes and antihypertension functionality to compliment overall dietary management of early stages of type 2 diabetes.
Prunus domestica L.
Main compound(s): 3-p-Coumaroylquinic acid, 5-Caffeoylquinic acid, Caffeic acid, Catechin, Hydrocinnamic acid, Phloridzin, Rutin
Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Prunes and Prune Juice (Prunus domestica)
Jennifer L. Donovan†, Anne S. Meyer‡, and Andrew L. Waterhouse*†
Phenolic compounds in foods have been associated with reduced incidences of heart disease by acting as antioxidants for low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Commercial prune and prune juice extracts (Prunus domestica cv. French) were analyzed for phenolics by reversed phase HPLC with diode array detection and tested for the ability to inhibit the Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation of human LDL. The mean concentrations of phenolics were 1840 mg/kg, 1397 mg/kg, and 441 mg/L in pitted prunes, extra large prunes with pits, and prune juice, respectively. Hydroxycinnamates, especially neochlorogenic acid, and chlorogenic acid predominated, and these compounds, as well as the prune and prune juice extracts, inhibited the oxidation of LDL. The pitted prune extract inhibited LDL oxidation by 24, 82, and 98% at 5, 10, and 20 ?M gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The prune juice extract inhibited LDL oxidation by 3, 62, and 97% at 5, 10, and 20 ?M GAE. These data indicate that prunes and prune juice may provide a source of dietary antioxidants.
Chlorogenic acid, a polyphenol from Prunus domestica (Mirabelle), with coupled anxiolytic and antioxidant effects
Jaouad Bouayed, Hassan Rammal, Amadou Dicko, Chafique Younos, Rachid Soulimani
Background Oxidative stress is linked to neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and to some behaviors, such as anxiety and depression. In particular, recent research observed a close relationship between oxidative stress and anxiety. Methods We investigated the anxiolytic effect of chlorogenic acid, a dietary antioxidant present in fruits, in mouse models of anxiety including the light/dark test, the elevated plus maze and the free exploratory test. Moreover, the antioxidative effect of chlorogenic acid on peripheral blood granulocytes was investigated. Results Chlorogenic acid (20 mg/kg) induced a decrease in anxiety-related behaviors suggesting an anxiolytic-like effect of this polyphenol. The anti-anxiety effect was blocked by flumazenil suggesting that anxiety is reduced by activation of the benzodiazepine receptor. In vitro, chlorogenic acid protected granulocytes from oxidative stress. Conclusions Chlorogenic acid is one of the most abundant polyphenols in fruits. We demonstrated in vivo and in vitro for the first time, that chlorogenic acid has anxiolytic effects coupled with antioxidant activity. Thus, fruits such as plums (Mirabelle), apples and cherries may provide health-promoting advantages to consumers.
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Main compound(s): Epicatechin, Hydrocinnamic acid, Quercetin, Resveratrol
Dietary feeding of freeze-dried whole cranberry inhibits intestinal tumor development in Apc min/+ mice
Duochen Jin, Tianyu Liu, Wenxiao Dong, Yujie Zhang, Sinan Wang, Runxiang Xie, Bangmao Wang, and Hailong Cao
It is increasingly perceived that dietary components have been linked with the prevention of intestinal cancer. Cranberry is a rich source of phenolic constituents and non-digestible fermentable dietary fiber, which shows anti-proliferation effect in colorectal cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the efficacy of long-term cranberry diet on intestinal adenoma formation in Apc min/+ mice. Apc min/+ mice were fed a basal diet or a diet containing 20% (w/w) freeze-dried whole cranberry powder for 12 weeks, and the number and size of tumors were recorded after sacrifice. Our results showed that cranberry strongly prevented the growth of intestinal tumors by 33.1%. Decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis were observed in tumors of cranberry-fed mice. Cranberry diet reduced the expression profile of colonic inflammatory cytokines (IFN-?, IL-1? and TNF-?) accompanied with increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Moreover, the number of colonic goblet cells and MUC2 production were increased, and the intestinal barrier function was also improved. In addition, cranberry diet increased caecal short chain fatty acids concentrations, and down-regulated epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. These data firstly show the efficacy and associated mechanisms of cranberry diet on intestinal tumor growth in Apc min/+ mice, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against intestinal cancer.
Cranberry ingestion inhibited intestinal tumor development (A) Dietary feeding of cranberry did not affect body weight gain in Apc min/+ mice. (B) The numbers of polyps per mouse in the small intestine and colon in both groups were listed. (C–D) Cranberry supplementation decreased the number of larger polyps (>1 mm) with the most prominent effect in proximal and middle sections of small intestine. Columns represented as mean from the ten mice in each group, bars represented as standard deviation. **p < 0.01 and *p < 0.05, cranberry diet-fed vs basal diet-fed Apc min/+ mice. (E–F) The representative gross appearance of intestinal tumors from both groups was shown after 12-week experiment.
Red grape seed and peel
Vitis vinifera
Main compound(s): Caffeoyl tartaric acid, Catechin, Cyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside, Delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, Epicatechin, Epicatechin galactosides, Isoquercetrin, Malvidin 3-O-(6''-acetyl-glucoside), Malvidin 3-O-(6''-p-coumaroyl-glucoside), Malvidin 3-O-glucoside, Miquelianin, p-Coumaroyl tartaric acid, Petunidin 3-O-glucoside, Procyanidin B1, Procyanidin B2, Procyanidin B3, Procyanidin B4, Procyanidin C1
Anticancer and Cancer Chemopreventive Potential of Grape Seed Extract and Other Grape-Based Products
Manjinder Kaur, Chapla Agarwal, Rajesh Agarwal
With emerging trends in the incidence of cancer of various organ sites, additional approaches are needed to control human malignancies. Intervention or prevention of cancer by dietary constituents, a strategy defined as chemoprevention, holds great promise in our conquest to control cancer, because it can be implemented on a broader population base with less economic burden. Consistent with this, several epidemiological studies have shown that populations that consume diets rich in fruits and vegetables have an overall lower cancer incidence. Based on these encouraging observations, research efforts from across the globe have focused on identifying, characterizing, and providing scientific basis to the efficacy of various phytonutrients in an effort to develop effective strategy to control various human malignancies. Cancer induction, growth, and progression are multi-step events and numerous studies have demonstrated that various dietary agents interfere with these stages of cancer, thus blocking malignancy. Fruits and vegetables represent untapped reservoir of various nutritive and nonnutritive phytochemicals with potential cancer chemopreventive activity. Grapes and grape-based products are one such class of dietary products that have shown cancer chemopreventive potential and are also known to improve overall human health. This review focuses on recent advancements in cancer chemopreventive and anticancer efficacy of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. Overall, completed studies from various scientific groups conclude that both grapes and grape-based products are excellent sources of various anticancer agents and their regular consumption should thus be beneficial to the general population.
Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of seed and skin extracts of red grape (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) pomace from Brazilian winemaking
Ismael Ivan Rockenbach, Luciano Valdemiro Gonzaga, Viviane Maria Rizelio, Any Elisa de Souza Schmidt Gonçalves, Maria Inés Genovese, RoseaneFetta
The phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of seed and skin of pomace from the vinification of grape varieties widely produced in Brazil were investigated with a view to their exploitation as a potential source of natural antioxidants. There was a greater concentration of phenolic compounds in the seeds (2128 to 16,518 mg of catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g) than in the skins (660 to 1839 mg CE/100 g). The highest antioxidant activity values determined as DPPH radical-scavenging ability and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) were found for the seeds of the Pinot Noir variety (16,925 ?mol Trolox equivalents (TE)/100 g and 21,492 ?mol Fe2+/100 g, respectively) and in the skin extracts of the Isabel variety (3640 ?mol TE/100 g and 4362 ?mol Fe2+/100 g, respectively). The skin of Cabernet Sauvignon and Primitivo varieties had the highest contents of anthocyanins (935 and 832 mg/100 g, respectively). The grape seed extracts were rich in oligomeric and polymeric flavanols. The data suggested that grape seed and skin extracts may be exploited as antioxidant agents.
Acacia flower
Robinae pseudoacaciae flos
Main compound(s): Acaciin, Robigenin, Robinin
Digital Herbarium and Drog Atlas
Dr. Ágnes Farkas, Dr. Nóra Papp, Dr. Tímea Bencsik,, Dr. Györgyi Horváth
Distribution, habitats This tree is native to North America, in the eastern and central parts of the USA. It is widespread in Eurasia, and its selected varieties are cultivated in many places. Black locust is able to bind loose sandy soils. Morphology The tree grows to heights of 5 to 30 m. The leaflets of the odd pinnate leaves are ovate with entire margin and rounded apex. The white papilionaceous flowers are arranged in racemes, yielding copious amounts of nectar. Flowering occurs in May. The fruit is a pod. Drug Robiniae pseudacaciae flos – Robinia flower, Robiniae pseudacaciae cortex – Robinia bark, Robiniae pseudacaciae folium – Robinia leaf Phytochemistry the flowers contain flavonoids (robigenin, acaciin), essential oil (linalool, benzyl alcohol, terpineol) and robinin, the bark contains toxalbumins (robin and phasin), the leaves contain essential oil and flavonoids (acacetin, acaciin, apigenin) Uses The flower is aromatic and used in perfume industry, its tea can be used in the treatment of reflux disease, by lowering gastric acid levels. The bark is used in homoeopathy, while the leaf is antibacterial, aromatic, emetic and insecticide.
Elder flower
Sambuci flos
Main compound(s): Piceatannol, Resveratrol
The effects of phytoestrogen extracts isolated from elder flower on hormone production and proliferation of trophoblast tumour and breast cancer cell lines
L Schröder, B Piechulla, M Chorbak, C Kuhn, S Schulze, S Abarzua, T Weißenbacher, U Jescke
Background: Lignans and flavonoids have a controversial effect on hormone-dependent tumours. Herein we investigated the effect of the elderflower extracts (EFE) on hormone production and proliferation of trophoblast tumour cells Jeg 3 and BeWo, as well as MCF 7 breast cancer cells. Methods: The EFE was prepared and analyzed by mass spectrometry. MCF7, Jeg3 and BeWo cells were incubated with various concentrations of EFE. Untreated cells served as controls. Supernatants were tested for estradiol production with an ELISA method. Furthermore, the effect of the EFE on ER-?/ER-?/PR expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Results: The EFE was found to contain a substantial ratio of lignans. Estradiol production was elevated in MCF7, BeWo and Jeg3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In MCF7 cells, a significant ER-? down-regulation and a significant PR up-regulation were observed. Conclusions: The above results after properly designed animal studies could highlight a potential of elderflower extracts (EFE) in breast cancer prevention and/or treatment.
Representative microphotographs of MCF7 cells grown in the absence or presence of enterodiol at concentrations of 10 ?g/mL, 50 ?g/mL, and 100 ?g/mL), after immuno-detection of ER-? (A) and PR (B) , and presentation of the immunocytochemistry results by the semi-quantitative immunoreactivity score (IRS). Significantly observations are highlighted with an asterisk.
Cyani flos
Main compound(s): Anthocyanins
Phytochemical study of centaurea Cyanus l..
Tatiana Chiru
In this work it was proposed to undertake the study of phenolic compounds present not only in the species of Centaurea cyanus L. with blue fl owers (which are used in medicine), but also with the flowers of other colors (red, pink), which are not valued until now. By qualitative determination, using chemical reaction and chromatography, some groups of phenolic compounds were established: phenilpropanic substances, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. The total of phenilpropan ic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins was determined spectrophotometrically , the total of tannins – using titration. These analysis have clarified the differences betwe en the concentration of active principles in the blue flowers and those of another color. It was determined that anthocyanins, the main metabolites that confer a C. cyanus L. its pha rmacological effects - diuretics, antiinflamateur, healing and so on, are more concen trated in red inflorescences (4-5 times more anthocyanins then in blue inflorescences). Oth er phenolic compounds also have a higher amount in the red flowers then in the blue.
Anti-inflammatory and immunological effects of Centaurea cyanus flower-heads
Nancy Garbackia, Vincent Gloaguenb, Jacques Damasc, Patricia Bodarta, Monique Titsa, Luc Angenota
Centaurea cyanus flower-heads are used in European phytotherapy for the treatment of minor ocular inflammations. Different pharmacological experiments (inhibition of carrageenan, zymosan and croton oil-induced oedemas, inhibition of plasma haemolytic activity, induction of anaphylatoxin activity) showed that polysaccharides extracted from C. cyanus flower-heads had anti-inflammatory properties and interfered with complement. Moreover, these polysaccharides were found to be mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose and galactose.
Hawthorn flower
Crategi sumitates
Main compound(s): Chlorogenic acid, Epicatechin, Hyperoside
Standardized extracts from hawthorn leaves and flowers in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders--preclinical and clinical studies.
Egon Koch, Fathi Abdul Malek
Extracts from different parts of hawthorn plants (Crataegus spp.) are used worldwide for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. So far, almost all clinical studies have been conducted with standardized hydroalcoholic extracts from leaves and flowers. These trials with more than 4000 patients have provided evidence for clinical benefits in the therapy of mild chronic heart failure. Besides cardiotonic effects, recent pharmacological investigations indicate that hawthorn extracts also possess cardio- and vasoprotective properties. Thus, these extracts may also be employed in the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of such conditions as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, or prevention of restenosis/reocclusion following peripheral endovascular treatment. In this review the pharmacological and clinical data relating to these standardized extracts are summarized.
Hibiscus fower
Hibisci flos
Main compound(s): Gossypitrin, Gossytrin, Hibiscitrin (hibiscetin-3-glucoside), Luteolin, Quercetin, Sabdaritrin
Metabolaid® Combination of Lemon Verbena and Hibiscus Flower Extract Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation.
Lee YS, Yang WK, Kim HY, Min B, Caturla N, Jones J, Park YC, Lee YC, Kim SH.
Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) has been used as a food spice, cosmetic, and in traditional medicine formulations to treat asthma and diabetes in South America and Southern Europe. Hibiscus flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine in the form of a tea to treat hypertension and inflammation. In the present study, we examined the synergistic effects of a formula of Metabolaid® (MetA), a combination of lemon verbena and hibiscus-flower extracts, on obesity and its complications in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The results showed that MetA decreased body weight, white adipose tissue (WAT), and liver weight. Additionally, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, glucose levels, glucose tolerance, and cold-induced thermogenesis were significantly improved. Appetite-regulating hormones adiponectin and leptin were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, while the inflammatory-related factors tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 were downregulated by MetA. Adipogenesis-activating gene expression was decreased, while increased thermogenesis-inducing genes were upregulated in the WAT, correlating with increased phosphorylation of AMPK and fatty-acid oxidation in the liver. Taken together, these results suggest that MetA decreased obesity and its complications in HFD mice. Therefore, this formula may be a candidate for the prevention and treatment of obesity and its complications.
Effect of LV, HS, and MetA on WAT weight and morphology in HFD-induced obese mice. Representative images (A), final WAT weight (B), hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining of WAT (C), and adipocytes area (D) in NFD and DIO mice after 9 weeks of 60% HFD feeding. Images were captured under a light microscope at ×100 magnification. Abdominal subWAT, abdominal subcutaneous fat, EWAT, epididymal white adipose tissue, RWAT, retroperitoneal white adipose tissue, Total, abdominal subWAT + EWAT + RWAT + intestine adipose tissue. HFD, 60% high-fat-diet control group, HFD + GC_245, HFD contains Garcinia cambogia extract (245 mg/kg)-fed group, HFD + LV_100, HFD contains lemon verbena extract (100 mg/kg)-fed group, HFD + HS_100, HFD contains Hibiscus flower extract (100 mg/kg)-fed group, HFD + MetA_50, HFD contains the MetA-mixed extract of lemon verbena plus Hibiscus flower (50 mg/kg)-fed group, HFD + MetA_100, HFD contains the MetA-mixed extract of lemon verbena plus Hibiscus flower (100 mg/kg)-fed group. Values are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 10). a–e Values within arrow with different letters are significantly different from each other at p < 0.05 as determined using Turkey’s multiple-range test.
Stoechados flos
Stoechados flos
Main compound(s): Apigenin, Apigenin glycosides, Astragalin, Eriodictyol, Galuteolin, Kaempferol, Luteolin, Naringenin, Naringenin glycosides, Naringin, Narirutin, Quercetin glycosides
Anti-atherosclerotic activities of flavonoids from the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium L. MOENCH through the pathway of anti-inflammation.
Mao Z, Gan C, Zhu J, Ma N, Wu L, Wang L, Wang X.
We have successfully established AS model using thoracic aortas vascular ring which evaluated by the morphological changes of blood vessels, the proliferation of VSMC, and the expression of inflammation factors VEGF, CRP, JNK2 and p38. This AS model has the advantages of low cost, convenient and short period of established time. Moreover, we investigated the anti-AS activities of 7 flavonoids Narirutin (1), Naringin (2), Eriodictyol (3), Luteolin (4), Galuteolin (5), Astragalin (6), Kaempferol (7) from flowers of Helichrysum arenarium L. MOENCH by examining the vascular morphology, the inhibition on the expression of inflammation factors CRP, VEGF, JNK2, p38. In addition, we investigated the anti-AS activities of these 7 flavonoids by examining NO secretion of RAW264.7 cells in response to LPS. All above inflammation factors have been proved to be involved in the formation of AS. After comprehensive analysis of all results to discuss the structure-activity relationship, we summarized the conclusions at follow: compounds 1-7 could inhibit the expression of VEGF, CRP, JNK2, p38 and NO at different level, and we evaluated that flavonol aglycone have more significant anti-inflammation than it's glycoside, and the anti-AS activity of flavonols were stronger than flavanones and flavones, which means that 3-group might be the effective group. Eventually, we supposed the main anti-inflammatory mechanism of these compounds was to reduce the expression of CRP, inhibit the kinases activity of JNK2 and p38, and then the MAPK pathway was suppressed, which resulted in the decrease of NO synthesis, VEGF expression and endothelial adhesion factor expression. And eventually, the scar tissue and vascular stenosis formations were prevented. This conclusion suggested flavonoids have the potential of preventing AS formation.
Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench. and Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. Flowers.
Babotă M, Mocan A, Vlase L, Cri?an O, Ielciu I, Gheldiu AM, Vodnar DC, Cri?an G, Păltinean R.
Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn. and Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench. are two species of the Asteraceae family, known in Romanian traditional medicine for their diuretic, choleretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic and sterolic composition of flowers from the two species and to assess their antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. LC-MS analyses were performed on methanolic, ethanolic and 70% v/v ethanolic extracts, before and after acid hydrolysis, and revealed high amounts of polyphenols. Chlorogenic acid was found as the main compound for the flowers of A. dioica (502.70 ± 25.11 mg/100 g d.w.), while quercitrin was dominant in H. arenarium (424.28 ± 21.21 mg/100 g d.w.) in 70% v/v ethanolic extracts before hydrolysis. Antioxidant capacity assays showed an important antioxidant potential, which can be correlated with the determined polyphenolic compounds, showing the 70% v/v ethanolic extracts of the two species as being the most effective antioxidant samples for the DPPH assay. Antibacterial and antifungal assays confirm a modest biological potential for the same extract of both species. Results obtained in the present study bring important data and offer scientific evidence on the chemical composition and on the biological activities of the flowers belonging to the two species.
Chamomillae flos
Main compound(s): Apigenin glycosides, Chlorogenic acid, Dicaffeoyl quinic acids, Ferulic acid glycosides
Preventive role of chamomile flowers and fennel seeds extracts against liver injury and oxidative stress induced by an immunosuppressant drug in rats
Fathia A. Mannaa, Nagi A Ibrahim, Soliman S Ibrahim
Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of chamomile flowers methanolic extract (CFME) and fennel seeds methanolic extract (FSME) on azathioprine (AZA), an immunosuppressant drug, which induced a liver injury and oxidative stress in rats. Methods: Rats were divided into 6 groups (8 rats each) and treated orally for 28 consecutive days as follows. Group 1: rats were given normal saline and used as controls, group 2: rats treated with CFME (200 mg/kg), group 3: rats treated with FSME (200 mg/kg), group 4: rats treated with AZA (25 mg/kg), and groups 5 and 6: rats treated with CFME (200 mg/kg) or FSME (200 mg/kg) 15 min prior to AZA (25 mg/kg) treatment. At the end of experimental period, blood and liver samples were collected from all groups for biochemical analysis and histological examination. Results: The obtained data revealed that AZA-induced hepatic injury in the rats as evidenced by the significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, and direct bilirubin as well as hepatic malondialdehyde level accompanied with significant decrease in reduced glutathione content and total antioxidant capacity in the liver. Moreover, body weight gain showed the significant decrease and relative liver weight showed the significant increase on AZA treatment. The sequential significant changes in biochemical parameters were accompanied by severe histological changes in the liver tissue, including hepatocytes disorganization with pyknotic nuclei, fatty degeneration, congestion, fibrosis, and bile duct necrosis around the portal tract. The areas of hemorrhages in blood vessels and in between hepatocytes were also seen. However, the results showed the potential hepatoprotective effects of CFME and FSME against AZA-induced liver injury and oxidative stress. They succeeded in restoring the biochemical parameters and improving the histological picture of the liver. This improvement was more pronounced in the rats pretreated with FSME. Conclusion: It could be concluded that CFME and FSME have hepatoprotective potentials against AZA probably due to their antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activity.
Hepatoprotective effect of chamomile capitula extract against 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
D.A.A. Al-Baroudi, R.A. Arafat, T.A. El-Kholy
Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of Chamomile capitula for 4 weeks on hepatotoxicity induced to rats by herbicide 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4 D). These effects could be explored by measuring body weight gain, feed efficiency ratio and relative weight of the liver. Serum levels of liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, total protein, total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme and antioxidant enzymes, glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined. Methods: Thirty six male Wistar rats were allocated into six groups as follows: - Group1: negative (normal rats) control, Group 2: positive (hepatotoxic) control given dose of 75 mg/kg b.wt., of 2, 4- D for 4 weeks, Group 3: Positive (hepatotoxic) control given dose of 150 mg/kg b.wt., of 2, 4-D for 4 weeks, Groups 4: given orally Chamomile capitula extract in a dose of 500 mg/kg b.wt., alone. Groups 5 and 6: given combination of Chamomile capitula extract with either the accumulative doses of the 75 mg/kg b.wt, or the 150 mg/kg b.wt., of 2, 4- D for 4 weeks. Results: The results showed that oral administration of Chamomile capitula extract to hepatotoxic rats for 28 days significantly decreased the elevated serum levels of liver enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP), total bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme and positive groups. Levels of antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase were significantly increased as compared to the control positive groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that Chamomile capitula aqueous extract induces potent hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in 2, 4 D - hepatotoxic rats. This study recommends that intake of Chamomile capitula extract as a herbal tea may be beneficial for patients who suffer from liver diseases and oxidative stress antioxidant enzymes.
Hops flower
Humuli lupuli flos
Main compound(s): Isoxanthohumol, Prenylnaringenin, Xanthohumol
Xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone derived from hops, suppresses cancer cell invasion through inhibiting the expression of CXCR4 chemokine receptor.
Yuequn Wang, Yihua Chen, Junwei Wang
Cancer metastasis is the main cause of death (90%), and only recently we have gained some insight into the mechanisms by which metastatic cells arise from primary tumors and target to specific organs. Cysteine X Cysteine (CXC) chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), initially linked with leukocyte trafficking, is overexpressed in various tumors and mediates homing of tumor cells to distant sites expressing its cognate ligand CXCL12. Therefore, identification of CXCR4 inhibitors has great potential to abrogate tumor metastasis. In this study, we demonstrated that xanthohumol (XN), a prenylflavonoid derived from the female flowers of the hops plant (Humulus lupulus. L), suppressed CXCR4 expression in various cancer cell types in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Both proteasome and lysosomal inhibitors had no effect to prevent the XN-induced downregulation of CXCR4, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of XN was not due to proteolytic degradation but occurred at the transcriptional level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay further confirmed that XN could block endogenous activation of nuclear factor kappa B, a key transcription factor regulates the expression of CXCR4 in cancer cells. Consistent with the above molecular basis, XN abolished cell invasion induced by CXCL12 in both breast and colon cancer cells. Interestingly, although co-exist in hops, XN is the only isoform that exhibited the inhibitory effect on the expression of CXCR4 compared with other isomers, isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin. Together, our results suggested that XN, as a novel inhibitor of CXCR4, could be a promising therapeutic agent contributed to cancer treatment.
Blackthorn flower
Pruni spin. flos
Main compound(s): Anthocyanins, Arabinosides, Coumarins, Pyranoflavonols, Rhamnosides, Xylosides
Bioactivity Potential of Prunus spinosa L. Flower Extracts: Phytochemical Profiling, Cellular Safety, Pro-inflammatory Enzymes Inhibition and Protective Effects Against Oxidative Stress In Vitro.
Marchelak A, Owczarek A, Matczak M, Pawlak A, Kolodziejczyk-Czepas J, Nowak P, Olszewska MA.
Flower extracts of Prunus spinosa L. (blackthorn)-a traditional medicinal plant of Central and Eastern Europe indicated for the treatment of urinary tract disorders, inflammation, and adjunctive therapy of cardiovascular diseases-were evaluated in terms of chemical composition, antioxidant activity, potential anti-inflammatory effects, and cellular safety in function of fractionated extraction. The UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3 fingerprinting led to full or partial identification of 57 marker constituents (36 new for the flowers), mostly flavonoids, A-type proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids, and provided the basis for authentication and standardization of the flower extracts. With the contents up to 584.07 mg/g dry weight (dw), 490.63, 109.43, and 66.77 mg/g dw of total phenolics (TPC), flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids, respectively, the extracts were proven to be rich sources of polyphenols. In chemical in vitro tests of antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, TBARS) and enzyme (lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase) inhibitory activity, the extracts effects were profound, dose-, phenolic-, and extraction solvent-dependent. Moreover, at in vivo-relevant levels (1-5 ?g/mL) the extracts effectively protected the human plasma components against peroxynitrite-induced damage (reduced the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers: 3-nitrotyrosine, lipid hydroperoxides, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and enhanced the total antioxidant status of plasma. The effects observed in biological models were in general dose- and TPC-dependent, only for protein nitration the relationships were not significant. Furthermore, in cytotoxicity tests, the extracts did not affect the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and might be regarded as safe. Among extracts, the defatted methanol-water (7:3, v/v) extract and its diethyl ether and ethyl acetate fractions appear to be the most advantageous for biological applications. As compared to the positive controls, activity of the extracts was favorable, which might be attributed to some synergic effects of their constituents. In conclusion, this research proves that the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory capacity of phenolic fractions should be counted as one of the mechanisms behind the activity of the flowers reported by traditional medicine and demonstrates the potential of the extracts as alternative ingredients for functional products supporting the treatment of oxidative stress-related pathologies cross-linked with inflammatory changes, especially in cardiovascular protection.
Viability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) after 60 and 120 min of incubation with P. spinosa flower dry extracts at 5 ?g/mL.
Calendulae flos cum cal.
Main compound(s): Apigenin, Gallic acid, Luteolin, Patuletin, Quercetin
Identification of antitumoral agents against human pancreatic cancer cells from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae plant extracts.
Mouhid L, Gómez de Cedrón M, Vargas T, García-Carrascosa E, Herranz N, García-Risco M, Reglero G,, Fornari T, Ramírez de Molina A.
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and mortal cancers. Although several drugs have been proposed for its treatment, it remains resistant and new alternatives are needed. In this context, plants and their derivatives constitute a relevant source of bioactive components which might efficiently inhibit tumor cell progression. METHODS: In this study, we have analyzed the potential anti-carcinogenic effect of different Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) plant extracts obtained by different green technologies (Supercritical CO2 Extraction -SFE- and Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction -UAE-) to identify efficient plant extracts against human pancreatic cancer cells that could constitute the basis of novel treatment approaches. RESULTS: Asteraceae extracts showed better results as antitumoral agents than Lamiaceae by inducing cytotoxicity and inhibiting cell transformation, and SFE extracts were most efficient than UAE extracts. In addition, SFE derived plant extracts from Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis displayed synergism with the chemotherapeutic 5-Fluororacil. CONCLUSION: These results show how Yarrow and Marigold SFE-derived extracts can inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth, and could be proposed for a comprehensive study to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in their bioactivity with the final aim to propose them as potential adjuvants in pancreatic cancer therapy.
Different phases of cell death after 24 h treatment with Asteraceae plants on MIA Paca-2. The % of apoptotic cells depending on Yarrow and Marigold SFE extracts (a) and the % of necrotic populations after those treatments (b). A representative flow cytometry diagram (c). Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining discriminates the live cells (Annexin V?/PI?, bottom left quadrant), early apoptotic cells (Annexin V+/PI, bottom right quadrant), late apoptotic (Annexin V+/PI+, upper right quadrant), and necrotic or dead cells (Annexin V?/PI+, upper left quadrant). Data represent means ± S.E.M of at least four independent experiments each performed in triplicate. Asterisks indicate statistical differences in treated cells with respect to the control (non-treated cells, DMSO 0.1%). *p<0.05, ***p<0.001
Lavandulae flos
Main compound(s): Apigenin, Caffeic acid, Ferulic acid, Luteolin, Quercetin, Rosmarinic acid
A multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorder.
Woelk H, Schläfke S.
Generalized and persistent anxiety, accompanied by nervousness and other symptoms (Generalised Anxiety Disorder, GAD) is frequent in the general population and leads to benzodiazepine usage. Unfortunately, these substances induce sedation and have a high potential for drug abuse, and there is thus a need for alternatives. As the anxiolytic properties of lavender have already been demonstrated in pharmacological studies and small-scale clinical trials, it was postulated that lavender has a positive effect in GAD. A controlled clinical study was then performed to evaluate the efficacy of silexan, a new oral lavender oil capsule preparation, versus a benzodiazepine. In this study, the efficacy of a 6-week-intake of silexan compared to lorazepam was investigated in adults with GAD. The primary target variable was the change in the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A-total score) as an objective measurement of the severity of anxiety between baseline and week 6. The results suggest that silexan effectively ameliorates generalized anxiety comparable to a common benzodiazepine (lorazepam). The mean of the HAM-A-total score decreased clearly and to a similar extent in both groups (by 11.3+/-6.7 points (45%) in the silexan group and by 11.6+/-6.6 points (46%) in the lorazepam group, from 25+/-4 points at baseline in both groups). During the active treatment period, the two HAM-A subscores "somatic anxiety" (HAM-A subscore I) and "psychic anxiety" (HAM-A subscore II) also decreased clearly and to a similar extent in both groups. The changes in other subscores measured during the study, such as the SAS (Self-rating Anxiety Scale), PSWQ-PW (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), SF 36 Health survey Questionnaire and Clinical Global Impressions of severity of disorder (CGI item 1, CGI item 2, CGI item 3), and the results of the sleep diary demonstrated comparable positive effects of the two compounds. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that silexan is as effective as lorazepam in adults with GAD. The safety of silexan was also demonstrated. Since lavender oil showed no sedative effects in our study and has no potential for drug abuse, silexan appears to be an effective and well tolerated alternative to benzodiazepines for amelioration of generalised anxiety.
Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of 'subsyndromal' anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.
Kasper S, Gastpar M, Müller WE, Volz HP, Möller HJ, Dienel A, Schläfke S.
This study was performed to investigate the anxiolytic efficacy of silexan, a new oral lavender oil capsule preparation, in comparison to placebo in primary care. In 27 general and psychiatric practices 221 adults suffering from anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders-IV 300.00 or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth revision F41.9) were randomized to 80 mg/day of a defined, orally administered preparation from Lavandula species or placebo for 10 weeks with visits every 2 weeks. A Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) total score >or=18 and a total score >5 for the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were required. The primary outcome measures were HAMA and PSQI total score decrease between baseline and week 10. Secondary efficacy measures included the Clinical Global Impressions scale, the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and the SF-36 Health Survey Questionnaire. Patients treated with silexan showed a total score decrease by 16.0+/-8.3 points (mean+/-SD, 59.3%) for the HAMA and by 5.5+/-4.4 points (44.7%) for the PSQI compared to 9.5+/-9.1 (35.4%) and 3.8+/-4.1 points (30.9%) in the placebo group (P<0.01 one-sided, intention to treat). Silexan was superior to placebo regarding the percentage of responders (76.9 vs. 49.1%, P<0.001) and remitters (60.6 vs. 42.6%, P=0.009). Lavandula oil preparation had a significant beneficial influence on quality and duration of sleep and improved general mental and physical health without causing any unwanted sedative or other drug specific effects. Lavandula oil preparation silexan is both efficacious and safe for the relief of anxiety disorder not otherwise specified. It has a clinically meaningful anxiolytic effect and alleviates anxiety related disturbed sleep.
Malvae mauri flos
Malvae mauri flos
Main compound(s): Gentiobiosid, Hydroxyluteolin
Bioactivity of Malva Sylvestris L., a Medicinal Plant from Iran
Seyed Mehdi Razavi, Gholamreza Zarrini, Ghader Molavi and Ghader Ghasemi
Objective(s) Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae), an annual plant, has been already commonly used as a medicinal plant in Iran. In the present work, we evaluate some bioactivities of the plant extracts. Materials and Methods The aired-dried plant flowers and leaves were extracted by soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic of the plant extracts were evaluated using disk diffusion method, MTT, and Lettuce assays, respectively. Results Both flowers and leaves of M. sylvestris methanol extracts exhibited strong antibacterial effects against Erwinia carotovora, a plant pathogen, with MIC value of 128 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The flowers extract also showed high antibacterial effects against some human pathogen bacteria strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Entrococcus faecalis, with MIC value of 192, 200 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The plant methanol extracts had relatively high cytotoxic activity against MacCoy cell line. Conclusion We concluded that Malva sylvestris can be candidated as an antiseptic, a chemopreventive or a chemotherapeutic agent.
Cytotoxic effects of methanol extract of M. sylvestris on MacCoy cells. Each bar represents standard error of the mean
Citrus bigaradia
Auranthii flos
Main compound(s): Naringin, Neohesperidin
Antidepressant- like effect of essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill and Citrus bigaradia Duh with forced swimming test in reserpinized mice Balb/C.
Fariba Hashemi Shahraki , Abdul Rasul Namjoo , Abdollahi Ghasemi Pirbalout , Zahra Lorigooini , Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei , Mostafa Gholami Arjenaki
Background: Levandula angustifolia and Citrus aurantium essential oils possess phenolic compounds and in Iranian traditional medicine are commonly used as sedative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant activities of Levandula angustifolia and Citrus bigaradia in adult reserpinized mice. Methods: In this experimental study, mice were divided into 10 groups of 8 mice each, including: Group 1, control group received normal saline. Group 2, was treated reserpine (5 mg/kg, IP). Group 3, 4, 5 and 6 were treated with reserpine (5 mg/kg, IP) and four Citrus aurantium different doses (25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg). Group 7, 8 and 9 were treated with reserpine (5 mg/kg, IP) and three Levandula angustifolia doses (25, 50, 100 mg/kg). Group 10 was treated with reserpine (5 mg/kg, IP) and imipramine (15 mg/kg). In all groups the forced swimming test was done and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in brain tissue was measured to estimate the oxidative stress status. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. Results: Levandula angustifolia, Citrus aurantium and imipramine in reserpinized mice caused the mice to spend less time in the forced swimming test, compared to the control group (p<0.01). Also Citrus aurantium with dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg and Lavandula angustifolia with dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg in reserpinized mice reduced immobility time and levels of MDA compared the control group (p<0.01). Conclusion: Lavander and Citrus aurantium essential oils have considerable antidepressant activity which might be attributed to their antioxidant effects.
Effect of hesperidin and neohesperidin from bittersweet orange (Citrus aurantium var. bigaradia) peel on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcers in rats
Dalia I. Hamdan, Mona F. Mahmoud, Michael Wink, Assem M. El-Shazly
Hesperidin and neohesperidin are the major flavanones isolated from bittersweet orange. It was recently reported that they have potent anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory models. In the present study, the effects of hesperidin and neohesperidin on indomethacin-induced ulcers in rats and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats with a single dose of indomethacin. The effects of pretreatment with hesperidin and neohesperidin were assessed in comparison with omeprazole as reference standard. Ulcer index, gene expression of gastric cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), lipid peroxidation product, malondialdhyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in stomach were measured. Furthermore, gross and histopathological examination was performed. Our results indicated that both hesperidin and neohesperidin significantly aggravated gastric damage caused by indomethacin administration as evidenced by increased ulcer index and histopathological changes of stomach.
Tilia flower
Tiliae off. flos
Main compound(s): Astragalin, Chlorogenic acid, Isoquercetrin, Pyranoflavonols, Quercetin, Tiliroside, Rutin
The influence of procyanidins isolated from small-leaved lime flowers (Tilia cordata Mill.) on human neutrophils.
Czerwińska ME, Dudek MK, Pawłowska KA, Pruś A, Ziaja M, Granica S.
Linden flower is a wildly used plant material among patients in the treatment of common cold symptoms and mucosa inflammations. However, the structure and bioactivity of flavan-3-ol derivatives present in infusions from flowers of Tilia cordata have not been studied so far. The aim of current study was to isolate and identify main procyanidins present in the flowers of small-leaved lime and to evaluate their influence on the inflammatory response of human neutrophils ex vivo. The chemical structure of isolated compounds was established by 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The bioactivity of obtained compounds was tested in human neutrophils model. Cytotoxicity and influence of compounds on apoptosis was established by flow cytometry. The levels of produced cytokines were established by ELISA after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species was checked by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence method after N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP) induction. The phytochemical work resulted in the isolation of 10 compounds. Compounds were identified as oligomeric procyanidins and their precursor epicatechin. The potential anti-inflammatory activity of compounds was evaluated in the concentration range 5-20??M. All compounds were able to decrease the production of ROS from f-MLP-stimulated neutrophils. Most of compounds were able to inhibit the LPS-induced release of IL-8. Some trimeric and tetrameric derivatives were also able to decrease the production of MIP-1?. Obtained results partially support the traditional usage of infusion from lime flowers in the treatment of symptoms of inflammation and irritation of mucosa in common cold, pharyngitis and tonsillitis.
Rose petals
Rosae petal
Main compound(s): Cyanidin glycosides, Ellagitannins, Pentahydroxyflavone trimethyl ether, Peonidin glycosides, Peonidin sophorosides
A Polyphenol-Enriched Fraction of Rose Oil Distillation Wastewater Inhibits Cell Proliferation, Migration and TNF-?-Induced VEGF Secretion in Human Immortalized Keratinocytes.
Wedler J, Rusanov K, Atanassov I, Butterweck V.
Water steam distillation of rose flowers separates the essential oil from the polyphenol-containing rose oil distillation wastewater. Recently, a strategy was developed to separate rose oil distillation wastewater into a polyphenol depleted water fraction and a polyphenol-enriched fraction [RF20-(SP-207)]. The objective of the present study was to investigate RF20-(SP-207) and fraction F(IV), augmented in quercetin and ellagic acid, for possible antiproliferative effects in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) since rose petals are known to contain compounds with potential antiproliferative activity.RF20-(SP-207) revealed dose-dependent antiproliferative activity (IC50 of 9.78?µg/mL). In a nontoxic concentration of 10?µg/mL, this effect was stronger than that of the two positive controls LY294002 (10?µM, PI3?K-inhibitor, 30?% inhibition) and NVP-BEZ235 (100?nM, dual PI3?K/mTOR inhibitor, 30?% inhibition) and clearly exceeded the antiproliferative action of quercetin (50?µM, 25?% inhibition) and ellagic acid (1?µM, 15?% inhibition). Time-lapse microscopy detected a significant impairment of cell migration of RF20-(SP-207) and F(IV). At concentrations of 10?µg/mL of both, extract and fraction, cell migration was strongly suppressed (51?% and 28?% gap closure, respectively, compared to 95?% gap closure 24 hours after control treatment). The suppression of cell migration was comparable to the positive controls LY294002, NVP-BEZ235, and quercetin. Furthermore, basal and TNF-?-stimulated VEGF-secretion was significantly reduced by RF20-(SP-207) and F(IV) at 10?µg/mL (44?% vs. untreated control).In conclusion, RF20-(SP-207) showed promising antiproliferative and antimigratory effects and could be developed as a supportive, therapy against hyperproliferation-involved skin diseases.
Carthami flos
Main compound(s): Acacetin glucuronides, Luteolin, Quercetin, Quercetin glycosides, Luteolin glycosides
Safflower yellow for acute ischemic stroke: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Fan S, Lin N, Shan G, Zuo P, Cui L.
OBJECTIVES: Stroke is one of the most common causes of mortality worldwide. Safflower yellow is widely used for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in China. Several trials comparing safflower yellow and placebo or no intervention were unavailable for prior meta-analysis. Here, we present an updated and expanded systematic review, including four new trials, to evaluate the efficacy and safety of safflower yellow for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Biological Medicine Database (CBM), CQVIP Information and Wanfang Database until January 2013. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of safflower yellow for acute ischemic stroke were included. Two researchers (Fan, S.Y. and Lin, N.) independently extracted data, assessed the study quality, and selected trials for inclusion. RESULTS: 7 RCTs with 762 participants were included. None of the included studies were of high methodological quality. The meta-analysis showed that safflower yellow was more effective assessed by neurological improvement rate [odds ratio (OR), 3.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.06-4.68, P<0.05] compared with control group. No death was reported in any of the included studies during the follow up period. Only four trials reported adverse events, and skin rash was observed in the treatment group of one trial. CONCLUSIONS: Safflower yellow seems to be effective and safe in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. However, RCTs of high methodological quality are warranted before drawing any conclusion on the efficacy or safety of safflower yellow for acute ischemic stroke.
Anisi fructus
Main compound(s): Caffeic acid, Ferulic acid, Gallic acid
Ochratoxin A production in aniseed-based media by selected fungal strains and in anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L.).
Espejo F, Vázquez C, Pati?o B, Armada S.
The growth conditions and ochratoxin A (OTA) production of Aspergillus strains were studied in aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.)-based media. The results showed that methanol/NaHCO3 (50:50, v/v) mixture for extraction and competitive direct ELISA analytical method are capable of detecting low OTA concentrations in this raw material, which were confirmed by HPLC with fluorescence detection (R (2)?=?0.994). In aniseed meal extract agar artificially contaminated with selected fungi, the higher OTA values obtained were 283.8?±?28.1 ?g L(-1) for A. carbonarius and between 1.7?±?0.1 ?g L(-1) and 16.5?±?12.8 ?g L(-1) for A. steynii strains. While the optimal conditions of growth for A. carbonarius and A. steynii are 28°C and 0.98 a w, the optimal production of OTA was observed at 0.99 a w for both A. carbonarius and A. steynii but at 22°C and 28°C, respectively. Except in one sample, all the aniseed samples analysed were negative for OTA natural contamination. This study demonstrates that aniseed can be a matrix capable to contamination with OTA, at least produced by A. carbonarius and A. steynii strains, regardless of the antimicrobial properties of aniseed essential oil.
Milled Baobab
Adansonia digitata
Main compound(s): Cinnamic acid, Coumaric acid, Ferulic acid, Gallic acid, Homovanillic acid
Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Adansonia digitata Extract on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.
Hanafy A, Aldawsari HM, Badr JM, Ibrahim AK, Abdel-Hady Sel-S.
The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae) was examined for its hepatoprotective activity against liver damage induced by acetaminophen in rats. The principle depends on the fact that administration of acetaminophen will be associated with development of oxidative stress. In addition, hepatospecific serum markers will be disturbed. Treatment of the rats with the methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. prior to administration of acetaminophen significantly reduced the disturbance in liver function. Liver functions were measured by assessment of total protein, total bilirubin, ALP, ALT, and AST. Oxidative stress parameter and antioxidant markers were also evaluated. Moreover, histopathological evaluation was performed in order to assess liver case regarding inflammatory infiltration or necrosis. Animals were observed for any symptoms of toxicity after administration of extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata L. to ensure safety of the fruit extract. 3.1. Acute Toxicity Study After oral administration of Adansonia digitata extract for seven days, no mortalities were reported up to 2000?mg/kg, and hence 1/10th of the maximum dose administered (i.e., 200?mg/kg, p.o.) was selected for the present study. 3.2. Effect of Adansonia digitata Extract and Silymarin on Liver Functions Measured as ALT, AST, ALP, Bilirubin, and Total Protein The results of the liver function tests are shown in Table 1. Administration of acetaminophen resulted in a significant () elevation of hepatospecific serum markers ALT, AST, ALP, and total bilirubin. On the other hand, there was a significant reduction in the total protein in comparison with the normal control rats. These deleterious effects of acetaminophen were significantly () alleviated by pretreatment with either silymarin or Adansonia digitata extract compared to the acetaminophen group. We did not find any significant difference between silymarin treated rats and Adansonia digitata extract treated rats (Table 1).
Effect of Adansonia digitata extract (200?mg/kg) and silymarin (100?mg/kg) on liver lipid peroxides (measured as MDA) concentration in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Each point represents the mean ± SD of ten rats. ??Significant difference compared with the control group (P < 0.05). ?#Significant difference compared with the acetaminophen group (P < 0.05).
Sorghum vulgare Pers semen
Main compound(s): Protocatechuic acid
Sorghum phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health.
Awika JM, Rooney LW.
Sorghum is a rich source of various phytochemicals including tannins, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, phytosterols and policosanols. These phytochemicals have potential to significantly impact human health. Sorghum fractions possess high antioxidant activity in vitro relative to other cereals or fruits. These fractions may offer similar health benefits commonly associated with fruits. Available epidemiological evidence suggests that sorghum consumption reduces the risk of certain types of cancer in humans compared to other cereals. The high concentration of phytochemicals in sorghum may be partly responsible. Sorghums containing tannins are widely reported to reduce caloric availability and hence weight gain in animals. This property is potentially useful in helping reduce obesity in humans. Sorghum phytochemicals also promote cardiovascular health in animals. Such properties have not been reported in humans and require investigation, since cardiovascular disease is currently the leading killer in the developed world. This paper reviews available information on sorghum phytochemicals, how the information relates to current phytonutrient research and how it has potential to combat common nutrition-related diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.
Hwanggeumchal sorghum Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, and Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Jak2/STAT Pathways in Breast Cancer Xenografts
Jin Hee Park,# Pramod Darvin,# Eun Joung Lim, Youn Hee Joung, Dae Young Hong, Eui U. Park, Seung Hwa Park, Soo Keun Choi, Eon-Soo Moon, Byung Wook Cho, Kyung Do Park, Hak Kyo Lee, Myong-Jo Kim, Dong-Sik Park, 0 Ill-Min Chung,# and Young Mok Yang , *
Background Cancer is one of the highly virulent diseases known to humankind with a high mortality rate. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Sorghum is a principal cereal food in many parts of the world, and is critical in folk medicine of Asia and Africa. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of HSE in metastatic breast cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Preliminary studies conducted on MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 xenograft models showed tumor growth suppression by HSE. Western blotting studies conducted both in vivo and in vitro to check the effect of HSE in Jak/STAT pathways. Anti-metastatic effects of HSE were confirmed using both MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 metastatic animal models. These studies showed that HSE can modulate Jak/STAT pathways, and it hindered the STAT5b/IGF-1R and STAT3/VEGF pathways not only by down-regulating the expression of these signal molecules and but also by preventing their phosphorylation. The expression of angiogenic factors like VEGF, VEGF-R2 and cell cycle regulators like cyclin D, cyclin E, and pRb were found down-regulated by HSE. In addition, it also targets Brk, p53, and HIF-1? for anti-cancer effects. HSE induced G1 phase arrest and migration inhibition in MDA-MB 231 cells. The metastasis of breast cancer to the lungs also found blocked by HSE in the metastatic animal model. Conclusions/Significance Usage of HS as a dietary supplement is an inexpensive natural cancer therapy, without any side effects. We strongly recommend the use of HS as an edible therapeutic agent as it possesses tumor suppression, migration inhibition, and anti-metastatic effects on breast cancer.
HSE suppressed the growth of human breast cancer xenograft in mice. Mice were treated daily with HSE at a dose ranging from 0 and 10 mg per kg body weight by intragastric administration. A, image of tumor-xenografted nude mice model at the end of the treatment. B, tumor size growth curves of MDA-MB 231 xenograft model during the treatment calculating the volume size of individual tumors. C, tumor size growth curves of MCF-7 xenograft model during the treatment calculating the volume size of individual tumors. D, H&E staining of MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 xenografts. Dii, Image of necrosis in MDA-MD 231 breast tumor tissue sections at the end of the treatment. Arrow points the area of necrosis. Tumors were collected on day 30 after start of treatment and were formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded followed by staining with hematoxylin and eosin. Representative images are shown (C, magnification: ×200, scale bar?=?200 µm). E, quantitative representation of tumor necrotic areas in comparison with vehicle. The area of necrosis in each section was quantified from six fields (magnification: ×200). The values are means ± S.E (n?=?6) after normalization to vehicle (internal control). Asterisks indicate a statistically significant decrease (B) or increase (E) by t-test (*p<0.05, ***p<0.001).
Rose hips seed
Rosa canina
Main compound(s): Caffeic acid, Catechin, Coumaric acid, Ellagic acid, Ferulic acid, Gallic acid, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Protocatechuic acid, Quercetin, Syringic acid, Rutin, Vanillic acid
An Antiinflammatory Galactolipid from Rose Hip (Rosa canina) that Inhibits Chemotaxis of Human Peripheral Blood Neutrophils in Vitro
Erik Larsen†, Arsalan Kharazmi‡, Lars P. Christensen*†, and S. Br?gger Christensen
The galactolipid (2S)-1,2-di-O-[(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoyl]-3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl glycerol (1) isolated from dried and milled fruits of Rosa canina by bioassay-guided fractionation is an antiinflammatory agent with inhibitory effects on chemotaxis of human peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro. The inhibition of cell migration is not related to toxicity. The presence of 1 in rose hips may explain the clinically observed antiinflammatory properties of rose hip herbal remedies.
Fennel seed
Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce
Main compound(s): Caffeic acid, Ferulic acid, Gallic acid, Quercetin
Beneficial Health Effects of Fennel Seeds (Shamar) on Male Rats Feeding High Fat-Diet
Fennel has been known since antiquity as a medicinal and aromatic herb, it commonly used in household remedy for various medicinal purposes. The present study was con-ducted to investigate the effect of beneficial health effects of fennel seeds on feeding rats with high fat-diet. Histopatho-logical changes of aorta, heart and liver were examined. Thirty five male albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain weighing 200±5g were used. Animals were divided into five groups of seven rats each: group (1) fed on the basal diet and kept as a negative control group, group (2) fed on high fat–diet and kept as positive control group, groups (3), (4) and (5) fed on high fat diets supplemented with three different levels of fennel seeds (5, 10 and 15%, respectively. The present results revealed that rats fed on high fat-diet only (positive control group) had significant (at p<0.05) increase in serum TL, TG, TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, AST, ALT, ALP and MDA concentra-tions, and significant decrease in serum HDL-C level as well as significant decrease in HDL-C/LDL-C ratio value and serum activity of CAT, GPX and SOD enzymes as compared to rats fed on basal diet only (negative control group). High fat-diet supplemented with the three different levels of fennel seeds significantly improved serum levels of TL, TG, TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, AST, ALT, ALP and MDA, and significant raise in serum HDL-C level, values of HDL-C/LDL-C ratio and improve activities of CAT, GPX and SOD enzymes compared to the positive control group. Histopathological investigation showed vaculations of tunica media and narrow-ing in the lumen of aorta sections and congestion of cardiac blood vessel as well as fatty change of hepatocytes in positive control rats. Vaculations of tunica media in aorta sections and fatty changes of hepatocytes were showed in rats fed high fat-diet supplemented with 5% of fennel seeds. Slight thick-ening in the wall of aorta sections was showed in rats treated with 10% fennel seeds, whereas, other sections showed ap-parent normal histological structure. Its liver sections had small vacuoles in the cytoplasm hepatocytes. Liver sections of treated rats with 15% fennel seeds showed small vacuoles in the cytoplasm of some hepatocytes and other sections revealed apparent normal hepatocytes. There were no histo-logical changes in heart sections of all treated rats with fennel seeds and in aorta of rats treated with 15% fennel seeds. In conclusion, the present study revealed that fennel seeds improve dyslipidaemia by improving lipid profile, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decrease the risk of chronic heart diseases by increasing level of HDL-C as well as enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes.
Carvi fructus
Main compound(s): Caffeic acid, Kaempferol
Cholesterol and triglycerides lowering activities of caraway fruits in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats
A.Lemhadri, L.Hajji, J.-B.Michel, M.Eddouks
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract of Carum carvi L. fruits at a dose of (20 mg/kg) on lipid metabolism in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ). After a single oral administration, Carum carvi extract produced a significant decrease on triglycerides levels in normal rats (p < 0.05). In STZ diabetic rats, cholesterol levels were decreased significantly 6 h after Carum carvi treatment (p < 0.05). On the other hand, repeated oral administration of Carum carvi extract exhibited a significant hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic activities in both normal (p < 0.01 and <0.001 respectively) and STZ diabetic rats (p < 0.001) 15 days after Carum carvi treatment. We conclude that the aqueous extract of Carum carvi (20 mg/kg) exhibits a potent lipid lowering activity in both normal and severe hyperglycemic rats after repeated oral administration of Carum carvi aqueous extract.
Plasma triglycerides levels over 6 h after a single oral administration of an aqueous Carum carvi extract (20 mg/kg) in normal (Panel a) and diabetic rats (Panel b). Data are expressed as means ± S.E.M., n = 6 rats per group. *p < 0.05, when compared to baseline values, (?) 0 h, () 6 h.
Cocoa bean
Theobroma cacao
Main compound(s): Benzoic acid, Caffeoyl aspartic acid, Catechin, Catechol, Cinnamtannin, Epicatechin, Epicatechin galactosides, Ethylcatechol, Guaiacol, Mellein, Procyanidin, Pyrogallol, Vanillin
Cacao Polyphenols Potentiate Anti-Platelet Effect of Endothelial Cells and Ameliorate Hypercoagulatory States Associated with Hypercholesterolemia.
Kim SJ, Park SH, Lee HW, Schini-Kerth VB, Kwon O, Lee KW, Oak MH.
Platelets are related to the formation of blood clots that play a crucial role in thrombosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Cocoa, derived from Theobroma cocoa, has been widely used as functional food for improving cardiovascular health. In the present study, the direct and indirect effects of cacao polyphenols (CPs) were investigated on human platelet aggregation associated with endothelial cells (ECs) senescence. In addition, the effect of CPs on high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercoagulatory states in rats was evaluated. CPs directly inhibited the human platelet aggregation induced by thromboxane analogue, U46619, and treatment of CPs on senescent endothelial cells markedly restored inhibitory effect of ECs on platelet aggregation. Nitric oxide (NO) from ECs is known as modulator of platelet aggregation and CPs increased eNOS activity in ECs and coronary artery. In animal model, increased TG level induced by high fat diet (HFD) was significantly decreased by CPs administration. In addition, the HFD animal had shorter bleeding time, and CPs administration attenuated the HFD-induced changes. Taken together, the present study indicates that CPs have potent anti-platelet effects most likely by direct and indirect effect via ECs and have the potential for lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease-related hypercoagulation due to hypercholesterolemia.
Dill seed
Anethi fructus
Main compound(s): Quercetin, Vanillic acid
Anethum graveolens (dill) - A medicinal herb induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cell line.
Mohammed FA, Elkady AI, Syed FQ, Mirza MB, Hakeem KR, Alkarim S.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The medicinal herb, Anethum graveolens L. (dill) is one of the potent culinary herbs used as an alternative form of medicine worldwide. The unguent topical Oil from the aerial parts of A. graveolens was found to be effective in the management of uterus cancer in ethnomedicine has been reported. BACKGROUND: The incidence and mortality rates of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are steadily rising worldwide, especially, in underdeveloped and developing countries. Moreover, HCC develops rapidly in patients with chronic cirrhosis or hepatitis, where the solid tumours/malignancies coexist with the inflammation. Recent studies have shown that the medicinal herb, Anethum graveolens, holds anticancer potential, which could be a promising approach for the treatment of various tumours. AIM: In the current study, we have analysed the antiproliferative effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Dill Seeds (EAFD) on HepG2 cell line. METHODS: Cell viability and proliferation were observed by MTT assay, Morphological changes were studied using fluorescent stains like Hoechst 33342, acridine orange/ethidium bromide and JC-1 dye. Further, the pro-apoptotic activity was demonstrated through Annexin-V-FITC/ PI assay and cell cycle analysis. Different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8?mg/ml) of EAFD were studied. RESULTS: EAFD markedly suppressed the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy revealed the morphological alterations like disruption, shrinkage, detachment and blebbing of cell membrane accompanied by nuclear condensation after exposure to EAFD. Radical scavenging activity was evidenced by measurement of ROS levels post-treatment. Modulation of mitochondrial membrane potential was exhibited leading to the activation of caspases 3/7 and 9 which is a committed step towards apoptosis. Annexin V-FITC/ PI assay and cell cycle, later confirmed the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in 'G2/M' phase through flow cytometric analysis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, a significant apoptogenic effect was exhibited by EAFD against HepG2 cells in inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Our findings indicate that the medicinal herb- Anethum graveolens, holds potential in treating hepatocellular carcinoma effectively.
Graphical abstract
Cardamom seed
Cardamomi fructus
Main compound(s): Cinnamic acid, Protocatechuic acid
The effects of green cardamom supplementation on blood glucose, lipids profile, oxidative stress, sirtuin-1 and irisin in type 2 diabetic patients: a study protocol for a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Aghasi M, Ghazi-Zahedi S, Koohdani F, Siassi F, Nasli-Esfahani E, Keshavarz A, Qorbani M, Khoshamal H, Salari-Moghaddam A, Sotoudeh G.
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic activities of cardamom may improve diabetes. However, the effect of this spice has not been investigated in diabetic subjects. This study was planned to determine the effects of green cardamom on blood glucose, lipids and oxidative stress status in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS/DESIGN: Eighty overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes will be selected. They will be randomly assigned to receive 3 g/d green cardamom or placebo for 10 weeks. The socio demographic, physical activity and 24-h food recall questionnaires will be collected for each subject. Weight, height and waist circumference will be measured. Determination of blood glucose, lipid profile, and oxidative stress biomarkers including serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in red blood cells will be performed. The homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) will be calculated. Also, serum levels of irisin, and Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) will be measured. DISCUSSION: This trial will be the first study to explore the effects of green cardamom supplementation on glycemic control, lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The results from this trial will provide evidence on the efficacy of green cardamom in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Participants flow diagram
Cannabis sativa
Main compound(s): Apigenin, Astragalin, Catechin, Chlorogenic acid, Daidzein, Epicatechin, Eriodictyol, Gallic acid, Genistein, Isoquercetrin, Naringenin, Naringin, Nicotiflorin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, Protocatechuic acid, Rutin, trans-p-Cumaric acid, Vanillic acid
Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Cold?Pressed Seed Oil from Finola Cultivar of Cannabis sativa L.
Antonella Smeriglio, Enza M. Galati, Maria T. Monforte, Francesco Lanuzza, Valeria D'Angelo, Clara Circosta
The aim of this study was to characterize the polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cold?pressed seed oil from Finola cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Several methodologies have been employed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Finola hempseed oil (FHSO) and both lipophilic (LF) and hydrophilic fractions (HF). The qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic fraction of FHSO was performed by HPLC analyses. From the results is evident that FHSO has high antioxidative activity, as measured by DPPH radical (146.76?mmol of TE/100?g oil), inhibited ??carotene bleaching, quenched a chemically generated peroxyl radical in vitro and showed high ferrous ion chelating activity. Reactivity towards 2,2??azino?bis (3?ethylbenzothiazoline?6?sulfonic acid) radical cation and ferric?reducing antioxidant power values were 695.2?µmol of TE/100g oil and 3690.6?µmol of TE/100?g oil respectively. FHSO contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds of which 2780.4?mg of quercetin equivalent/100?g of total flavonoids. The whole oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with LF and HF. Our findings indicate that the significant antioxidant properties shown from Finola seed oil might generally depend on the phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, such as flavanones, flavonols, flavanols and isoflavones. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lini semen
Main compound(s): Ferulic acid glycosides, Lariciresinol, Matairesinol, p-Coumaric acid 4-O-glucoside, Pinoresinol, Secoisolariciresinol
?-Linolenic acid prevents hepatic steatosis and improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet.
Gonçalves NB, Bannitz RF, Silva BR, Becari DD, Poloni C, Gomes PM, Foss MC, Foss-Freitas MC.
OBJECTIVES: Dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been efficacious in decreasing serum cholesterol levels and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the metabolic and molecular changes induced by the omega-3 fatty acid ?-linolenic acid (ALA), which is found in linseed oil, are not fully understood. In this study, we showed a correlation between ALA and insulin resistance, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). METHODS: We studied 40 male mice (C57/BL6) divided into 4 groups: a control (C) group, a control + omega-3/ALA (CA) group, a high-fat diet (HFD) (H) group and a high-fat diet + omega-3/ALA (HA) group. For 8 weeks, the animals in the H and HA groups were fed a high-fat (60%) diet, while the animals in the C and CA groups received regular chow. The diets of the CA and HA groups were supplemented with 10% lyophilized ALA. RESULTS: ALA supplementation improved glucose tolerance and reduced insulin resistance, as measured by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, respectively. In addition, ALA reduced hepatic steatosis and modified the standard fat concentration in the liver of animals fed an HFD. Dietary ALA supplementation reduced the serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), increased the expression of important chaperones such as binding immunoglobulin protein (BIP) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and reduced the expression of C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in hepatic tissues, suggesting an ERS adaptation in response to ALA supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary ALA supplementation is effective in preventing hepatic steatosis, is associated with a reduction in insulin resistance, inflammation and ERS, and represents an alternative for improving liver function and obtaining metabolic benefits.
Total liver fat levels and histopathological images of liver tissue A) Total liver fat (?g/g). One-way ANOVA (Tukey’s post hoc test): *p<0.0001, B) Histopathological images of liver tissue. HA, high-fat diet + 10% ALA, H, high-fat diet, CA, control chow +10% ALA, C, control chow. Magnification 1000×.
Methi seed
Trigonellae foenugraeci semen
Main compound(s): Gallic acid, Protocatechuic acid
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed polyphenols protect liver from alcohol toxicity: A role on hepatic detoxification system and apoptosis
Kaviarasan, S., Anuradha, C. V.
The present study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of fenugreek seed polyphenolic extract (FPEt) against ethanol-induced hepatic injury and apoptosis in rats. Chronic ethanol administration (6 g/kg/day × 60 days) caused liver damage that was manifested by the elevation of markers of liver dysfunction — aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin and ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in plasma and reduction in liver glycogen. The effects on alcohol metabolizing enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were studied and found to be altered in the alcohol-treated group. Ethanol administration resulted in adaptive induction of the activities of cytochrome p450 (cyt-p-450) and cytochrome-b5 (cyt-b5) and reduction in cytochrome-c-reductase (cyt-c-red) and glutathione-S-tranferase (GST), a phase II enzyme. Further, ethanol reduced the viability of isolated hepatocytes (ex vivo) as assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test and increased hepatocyte apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide staining (PI). Treatment with FPEt restored the levels of markers of liver injury and mitigated the alterations in alcohol metabolizing and detoxification enzymes and the electron transport component cytochrome-c reductase. Increased hepatocyte viability and reduced apoptotic nuclei were observed in FPEt-treated rats. These findings demonstrate that FPEt acts as a protective agent against ethanol-induced abnormalities in the liver. The effects of FPEt are comparable with those of a known hepatoprotective agent, silymarin.
Milk thistle seed
Cardui mariae fructus
Main compound(s): Dehydrosilybin, Gallic acid, Quercetin, Silibinin, Silymarin, Dihydroquercetin
Assessment of the Antioxidant Activity of Silybum marianum Seed Extract and Its Protective Effect against DNA Oxidation, Protein Damage and Lipid Peroxidation
Aynur Serçe, Bircan Çeken Toptanc?, Sevil Emen Tanr?kut, Sevcan Altaş, Göksel K?z?l, Süleyman K?z?l, and Murat K?z?l
Antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) seeds was investigated. We have also investigated the protein damage activated by oxidative Fenton reaction and its prevention by Silybum marianum seed extract. Antioxidant potential of Silybum marianum seed ethanol extract was measured using different in vitro methods, such as lipid peroxidation, 1,1–diphenyl–2–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power assays. The extract significantly decreased DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals. Protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals was also efficiently inhibited, which was confirmed by the presence of protein damage markers, such as protein carbonyl formation and by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE). The present study shows that milk thistle seeds have good DPPH free radical scavenging activity and can prevent lipid peroxidation. Therefore, Silybum marianum can be used as potentially rich source of antioxidants and food preservatives. The results suggest that the seeds may have potential beneficial health effects providing opportunities to develop value-added products.
Scavenging effect of ethanol extract of Silybum marianum seeds on 1,1–diphenyl–2–picrylhydrazyl radicals. Each value is expressed as mean value±standard deviation (S.D.) (N=3). BHT= butylated hydroxytoluene, BHA=butylated hydroxyanisole
Mustard seed
Sinapis albae semen
Main compound(s): Gallic acid, Quercetin, Sinapic acid
Effects of summer acupoint application therapy in reducing exacerbation frequency of chronic lung diseases: protocol of a retrospective and prospective study
Peng J, Wu XQ, He LY, Fang YG, Zi MJ, Yan SY, Liu BY.
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung diseases, including bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis, allergic rhinitis and repeated respiratory tract infection (RRTL) in infants, exacerbate frequently in winter because of respiratory viral infections and low temperature. Summer acupoint application therapy (SAAT) is thought to be effective in reducing exacerbation frequency of chronic lung diseases in winter. It is a kind of therapy using a herbal mixture for external application on special acupoints during summer. The herbal mixture basically contains Semen Sinapis Albae, Herba Asari, Radix Euphorbiae Kansui and Rhizoma Corydalis. The acupoints include Feishu (BL13), Dazhui (GV14) and Danzhong (CV17). Through a large-scale multicenter trial based on three years of clinical observation, and retrospective and prospective analyses, this study aims to explore the efficacy of SAAT. METHODS AND DESIGN: In this clinical observation trial, patients who have been diagnosed with bronchial asthma, COPD, chronic bronchitis, allergic rhinitis or RRTL will be enrolled from 13 centers. All patients enrolled will be treated with SAAT over a two-year period by medical practitioners. After this, an initial case report form (CRF) will be completed and forwarded to the central study site (China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China). The CRF is designed to investigate patients' history of medical treatment (including SAAT) and chronic lung disease exacerbation, also self-reported health condition. For retrospective analyses, the authors will focus on those who have accepted SAAT before enrollment and will collect their SAAT history and chronic lung disease exacerbation history, to evaluate the effects of SAAT. For prospective analyses, medical students will follow up with patients by phone interviews in winter once a year. The primary outcome is frequency of chronic lung disease exacerbation in winter. The secondary outcomes include conditions of lung disease recovery, non-SAAT therapy, and a self health report. DISCUSSION: The authors aim to collect 7 400 patients from July 2008 to August 2009. The final follow-up has been completed in December 2010. To reduce the selection bias, a total of 13 clinical centers from different areas of China have participated in this study. The results from this study will provide a high-quality evidence base for evaluating the efficacy of SAAT in reducing exacerbation frequency of chronic lung diseases in winter.
Sunflower seed
Helianthus annuus
Main compound(s): 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, Caffeic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Dicaffeoyl quinic acids, Neochlorogenic acid
Chemopreventive effect of resveratrol, sesamol, sesame oil and sunflower oil in the epstein–barr virus early antigen activation assay and the mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis
Kapadia GJ, Azuine MA, Tokuda H, Takasaki M, Mukainaka T, Konoshima T, Nishino H.
Resveratrol, sesamol, sesame oil and sunflower oil are known natural dietary components with intrinsic cancer chemopreventive potentials. As a part of our study of dietary constituents as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, we have assessed the anti-cancer potentials of these products in the promotion stage of cancer development employing the in vitro Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assay induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Further, we studied the activities of these compounds in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay as well as on the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging bioassay with a view to comparing some of the mechanisms of their anti-cancer activity. Finally, we compared the observed chemoprotective capabilities of the four products in the in vivo 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene initiated and TPA-promoted mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis protocols. All the products tested showed a profound inhibitory effect on the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen induction using Raji cells. Comparatively, sesame oil was the most potent followed by sesamol and then resveratrol. Only sesamol and resveratrol showed a remarkable cytotoxic activity in the brine shrimp lethality assays as well as profound free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH bioassay. In both test systems, sesamol exhibited a more remarkable activity than resveratrol while sesame oil and sunflower oil did not exhibit any appreciable activity even at the highest concentrations tested (4000 microg ml(-1) ). In our in vivo assay at a 50-fold molar ratio to TPA, sesamol offered 50% reduction in mouse skin papillomas at 20 weeks after promotion with TPA. Under an identical molar ratio to TPA, resveratrol offered a 60% reduction in the papillomas in mouse at 20 weeks. Thus sesamol seems to be an almost equally potent chemopreventive agent. Sesame oil and sunflower oil offered 20 and 40% protection, respectively, in the mouse skin tumor model. The anti-oxidant capabilities of these compounds could not solely explain the observed anti-cancer characteristics. Resveratrol is present in grapes. Sesamol, a constituent of sesame oil and sunflower oil are regularly consumed dietary natural products. The observed chemopreventive effect of these products particularly warrants more attention since they already exist in the population with no known adverse effects.
Pumpkin seed
Cucurbitae semen sine testa
Main compound(s): Caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, trans-p-Cumaric acid
Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in rats
Makni M, Sefi M, Fetoui H, Garoui el M, Gargouri NK, Boudawara T, Zeghal N.
This study investigated the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture on the kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Animals were allocated into three groups of six rats each: a control group (CD), a diabetic group (DD) and diabetic rats fed with Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture (DMS) group. The DD rats showed a significant increase of glycemia and lipid parameters such as total lipid, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared to those of the control group (CD). In addition, plasma and kidney malonaldialdehyde levels (MDA) were significantly increased compared to (CD) group. Antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and non-enzymatic levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) significantly decreased in the plasma and kidney of diabetic rats compared to those of controls. Diet supplemented with Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture ameliorated the antioxidant enzymes activities observed in diabetic rats and significantly decreased MDA levels. Kidney histological sections, showed glomerular hypertrophy and tubular dilatation. In DMS rats, these histopathological changes were less prominent. Our results suggest that Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture supplemented in diet of diabetic rats may be helpful to prevent diabetes and its complications.
Antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of pumpkin seed extracts
Marianna N.Xanthopoulou, Tzortzis Nomikos, Elizabeth Fragopoulou, Smaragdi Antonopoulou
Pumpkin seeds have been implicated in providing health benefits. However their antioxidant or anti-inflammatory activity of their extracts has never been studied. Therefore, four commercially available pumpkin seeds were treated with two different extraction methodologies in order to obtain fractions with different content. The extracts were screened for their antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and for their inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation catalyzed by soybean lipoxygenase. Most extracts tested have demonstrated radical scavenging activity, which depends on their total phenolic content, with fractions rich in phenolics showing the strongest activity. On the other hand, the phenolic content of extracts does not determine their activity against lipoxygenase, as acetone and polar lipid fractions are its strongest inhibitors. The presence of molecules being able to scavenge radicals and inhibit lipoxygenase in pumpkin seeds may in part explain the health benefits attributed to them.
Red grape seed
Vitis vinifera
Main compound(s): Catechin, Epicatechin, Epicatechin gallate, Epigallocatechin, Epigallocatechin gallate, Procyanidin B1
Polyphenolics in Grape Seeds—Biochemistry and Functionality
John Shi, Jianmel Yu, Joseph E. Pohorly, Yukio Kakuda
Grape seeds are waste products of the winery and grape juice industry. These seeds contain lipid, protein, carbohydrates, and 5-8% polyphenols depending on the variety. Polyphenols in grape seeds are mainly flavonoids, including gallic acid, the monomeric flavan-3-ols catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin 3-O-gallate, and procyanidin dimers, trimers, and more highly polymerized procyanidins. Grape seed extract is known as a powerful antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging, disease, and decay. Grape seeds contains mainly phenols such as proanthocyanidins (oligomeric proanthocyanidins). Scientific studies have shown that the antioxidant power of proanthocyanidins is 20 times greater than vitamin E and 50 times greater than vitamin C. Extensive research suggests that grape seed extract is beneficial in many areas of health because of its antioxidant effect to bond with collagen, promoting youthful skin, cell health, elasticity, and flexibility. Other studies have shown that proanthocyanidins help to protect the body from sun damage, to improve vision, to improve flexibility in joints, arteries, and body tissues such as the heart, and to improve blood circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries, and veins. The most abundant phenolic compounds isolated from grape seed are catechins, epicatechin, procyanidin, and some dimers and trimers.
Agrimonia eupatoria
Agrimoniae herba
Main compound(s): Apigenin, Catechin, Kaempferol, Luteolin, Procyanidin B1, Procyanidin B2, Procyanidin B3, Procyanidin dimer B6, Procyanidin dimer B7, Procyanidin trimer EEC, Quercetin, Tiliroside
Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Cynara cardunculus L. Water Infusions: Comparison of Anti-Diabetic Activities.
Kuczmannová A, Balažová A, Račanská E, Kameníková M, Fialová S, Majerník J, Nagy M, Gál P,,0, Mučaji P.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently diagnosed at a time when patients already suffer from several cardiovascular complications. Our previously published data (Molecules 201520 (11): 20538-50) on the anti-oxidative properties of Agrimonia eupatoria L. (AE) and Cynara cardunculus L. (CC) prompted us to extend the available evidence on their possible protective activities on selected DM-related parameters in a streptozotocin-induced DM rat model and in a series of in vitro experiments. Male rats were divided into four groups: control group, untreated diabetic group, AE and CC treated diabetic groups. During a five-week period, changes in blood glucose and body weight were monitored. Then, rats were sacrificed and subjected to the assessment of changes in the reactivity of aortas and measurement of butyrylcholinesterase activity. To complete the panel of experiments, ?-glucosidase activity was assessed in vitro. Our results demonstrate that both tested extracts exert similar anti-diabetic activities. However, better anti-oxidant activity of the A. eupatoria extract indicates its higher clinical potential in the prevention and/or adjuvant therapy of developing cardiovascular complications related to DM and diseases associated with oxidative stress.
Solidago grass
Solidaginis gig. herba
Main compound(s): Chlorogenic acid, Kaempferol, Nicotiflorin, Protocatechuic acid
Analytical Method for the Validation of Three Polyphenols as a Marker Compound for the Standardization of Solidago virgaurea subsp. gigantea Extracts and Antiadipogenesis of Harvesting Time and Location
Seung Hwan Hwang, Ju Hee Kim, Zhiqiang Wang, Jae-Yong Lee, and Soon Sung Lim
Protocatechuic acid (PC), chlorogenic acid (CA), and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K-O-R), isolated from the Solidago virgaurea subsp. gigantea (SV) extract, were quickly and efficiently separated using HPLC. Our chromatographic method was found to effectively separate PC, CA, and K-O-R at retention times of 5.36, 8.22, and 17.04?min, respectively. Linearity of PC, CA, and K-O-R was found to be in the range of 4.85–485.00, 47.5–1900.00, and 8.50–850.00??g/ml. Recoveries ranged between 101.32 and 103.30%, 95.82 and 100.25%, and 96.18 and 99.37%, for PC, CA, and K-O-R, respectively. The antiadipogenesis activity of SV extracts collected from five different months and from seven different regions was evaluated using an Oil Red O staining assay in 3T3-L1 cells. Extract from SV collected in April from the Ulleung Island produced over 106.89% inhibition of adipogenesis without cytotoxicity at 50??g/ml. This extract had a high amount of PC and K-O-R. The developed HPLC method was found to be fast, accurate, precise, and reproducible and could be applied to qualitative and quantitative analysis of three bioactive compounds in SV extracts. The SV extract collected in April from Ulleung Island can be used as a functional food ingredient preventing obesity.
Antiadipogenesis effect on 3T3-L1 of SV extracts collected from different regions. (a) Effect of SV extracts at 10 and 50??g/ml on viabilities of 3T3-L1 cells determined by MTS assay for 24?h, (b) relative lipid content, quantified by absorbance in 3T3-L1 cells with or without SV extracts at 10 and 50??g/mL for 8 days, (c) Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 cells with or without SV extracts at 10 and 50??g/mL for 8 days. Results are presented mean ± SE. The asterisk indicates a significant difference compared to DM (??P < 0.01 and ???P < 0.001).
Achillea millefolium
Millefolii herba
Main compound(s): Apigenin, Caffeic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Cynarine, Ferulic acid, Gallic acid, Kaempferol, Luteolin, Rutin
Identification of antitumoral agents against human pancreatic cancer cells from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae plant extracts.
Mouhid L, Gómez de Cedrón M, Vargas T, García-Carrascosa E, Herranz N, García-Risco M, Reglero G,, Fornari T, Ramírez de Molina A.
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and mortal cancers. Although several drugs have been proposed for its treatment, it remains resistant and new alternatives are needed. In this context, plants and their derivatives constitute a relevant source of bioactive components which might efficiently inhibit tumor cell progression. METHODS: In this study, we have analyzed the potential anti-carcinogenic effect of different Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) plant extracts obtained by different green technologies (Supercritical CO2 Extraction -SFE- and Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction -UAE-) to identify efficient plant extracts against human pancreatic cancer cells that could constitute the basis of novel treatment approaches. RESULTS: Asteraceae extracts showed better results as antitumoral agents than Lamiaceae by inducing cytotoxicity and inhibiting cell transformation, and SFE extracts were most efficient than UAE extracts. In addition, SFE derived plant extracts from Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis displayed synergism with the chemotherapeutic 5-Fluororacil. CONCLUSION: These results show how Yarrow and Marigold SFE-derived extracts can inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth, and could be proposed for a comprehensive study to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in their bioactivity with the final aim to propose them as potential adjuvants in pancreatic cancer therapy.
Different phases of cell death after 24 h treatment with Asteraceae plants on MIA Paca-2. The % of apoptotic cells depending on Yarrow and Marigold SFE extracts (a) and the % of necrotic populations after those treatments (b). A representative flow cytometry diagram (c). Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining discriminates the live cells (Annexin V/PI, bottom left quadrant), early apoptotic cells (Annexin V+/PI, bottom right quadrant), late apoptotic (Annexin V+/PI+, upper right quadrant), and necrotic or dead cells (Annexin V/PI+, upper left quadrant). Data represent means ± S.E.M of at least four independent experiments each performed in triplicate. Asterisks indicate statistical differences in treated cells with respect to the control (non-treated cells, DMSO 0.1%). *p<0.05, ***p<0.001
Melissae herba
Main compound(s): Eriodictyol, Ferulic acid, Gentisic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid
A Comparative Study of Melissa officinalis Leaves and Stems Ethanolic Extracts in terms of Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antiproliferative Potential
Moacă EA, Farcaş C, Ghiţu A, Coricovac D, Popovici R, Cărăba-Meiţă NL, Ardelean F, Antal DS, Dehelean C, Avram Ş.
Melissa officinalis L. has attracted an increased interest in recent years due to its multiple pharmacological effects. This study aimed to compare two M. officinalis ethanolic extracts, obtained from leaves and stems, with regard to their antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and cytotoxic effects. M. officinalis ethanolic extracts showed a very good antioxidant activity in the DPPH test, correlated with the content in total phenols: higher in the case of M. officinalis from leaves extract (32.76?mg?GAE/g) and lower for M. officinalis from stems extract (8.4?mg?GAE/g). The lemon balm extracts exerted a cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) even at low concentrations (100??g/mL), whereas, in the case of healthy HaCat cells, M. officinalis leaves extract only displayed cytotoxicity at much higher concentrations (500 and 1000??g/mL) and M. officinalis stems extracts were highly cytotoxic (starting at 100??g/mL). In addition, the extracts exerted inhibitory effects on cell migration and proliferation. These results provide information that confirms the high potential of M. officinalis as a source of chemopreventive agents. Moreover, these data can be considered a solid background for further in vivo studies involving mice bearing breast tumors.
Percentage of viable cells—breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), after stimulation with M. officinalis leaves and stems extracts (20, 100, 250, 500, and 1000??g/mL) for 24?h. The viability was assessed by using Alamar blue assay and was expressed as percentage of viable cells (%) related to positive control (cells stimulated with EtOH, the solvent used for obtaining the extracts). Data are expressed as mean values ± SD of three independent experiments done in triplicate and ???p < 0.001 and ?p < 0.05 and were calculated by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test.
Melissa officinalis Extract Inhibits Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Rat Model
Eun Kyoung Lee, Young Joo Kim, Jin Young Kim, Hyun Beom Song, and Hyeong Gon Yu
Purpose This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. Methods Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (P<0.001), 44.09±12.01 µm in the low-dose group (P?=?0.016), and 51.00±12.37 µm in the control group. The proportion of CNV lesions with clinically significant fluorescein leakage was 9.2% in rats treated with high-dose M. officinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, P<0.001). The levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. Meanwhile, M. officinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. Conclusions Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV formation in rats. Inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9 via anti-oxidative activity may underlie this effect.
Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of CNV. (A) Control group. (B) Low-dose M. officinalis extract (50 mg/kg) group. (C) High-dose M. officinalis extract (100 mg/kg) group. White arrows indicate a spindle-shaped choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesion. (D) Measurement of CNV thickness, in vivo, showed significantly smaller CNV in M. officinalis extract-treated rats than in control rats. The response was dose dependent. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. *indicates statistical significance (P<0.05).
Willow crust
Salicis cortex
Main compound(s): 7-O-methyltaxifolin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3’-O-glucoside, Ampelopsin, Catechin, Dihydroquercetin
Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity
Changhyun Roh and Uhee Jung
Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL, triacylglycerol lipase, EC in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 ?g/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.
Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) inhibitory activities of Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, Salicis Radicis Cortex, Geranium nepalense. Orlistat was used as a positive control. Experiments have been performed in triplicate.
Willow bark extract (Salicis cortex) for gonarthrosis and coxarthrosis--results of a cohort study with a control group.
Beer AM, Wegener T.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The examination of the effectiveness and tolerance of willow bark extract in patients with gonarthrosis and coxarthrosis compared to conventional therapies. METHODS: In an open, multicentric observational study with reference treatment, 90 patients were treated with a standardised willow bark extract preparation, 41 patients with a standard therapy prescribed by a doctor and 8 patients with a combination of the two. After 3 and finally 6 weeks the effectiveness and tolerance were determined by the doctor (clinical findings, recording of adverse events, global tolerance) and by the patients (WOMAC questions concerning pain and stiffness, questions on general state of health). RESULTS: A total of 88 patients in the willow bark group and 40 patients in the reference group completed the study. The doctors and patients judged the effectiveness in both groups to be comparable. After 6 weeks the effectiveness of the willow bark extract tended to be assessed as better than in the group undergoing conventional therapy. Also in the subgroup of chronically sick patients (>3 months), after 6 weeks the effectiveness of both forms of treatment was comparable, however, the effect was slower to set in the willow bark group than in the reference group. Doctors and patients assessed the tolerance of the willow bark extract to be better than the conventional therapy. Adverse effects of the drugs did not occur in the willow bark group, one case each of reflux symptoms occurred in the reference group and the CONCLUSIONS: For treating mild or fairly severe cases of gonarthrosis and coxarthrosis the effect of willow bark extract is comparable to that of standard therapies, without the corresponding side effects having to be accepted.
Corn silk
Maydis stigma
Main compound(s): Chlorogenic acid, Quercetin
Membrane Stabilization and Detoxification of Acetaminophen-Mediated Oxidative Onslaughts in the Kidneys of Wistar Rats by Standardized Fraction of Zea mays L. (Poaceae), Stigma maydis
S. Sabiu, F. H. O'Neill and A. O. T. Ashafa
This study evaluated membrane stabilization and detoxification potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Zea mays L., Stigma maydis in acetaminophen-induced oxidative onslaughts in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Nephrotoxic rats were orally pre- and posttreated with the fraction and vitamin C for 14 days. Kidney function, antioxidative and histological analyses were thereafter evaluated. The acetaminophen-mediated significant elevations in the serum concentrations of creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, and tissue levels of oxidized glutathione, protein-oxidized products, lipid peroxidized products, and fragmented DNA were dose-dependently assuaged in the fraction-treated animals. The fraction also markedly improved creatinine clearance rate, glutathione, and calcium concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in the nephrotoxic rats. These improvements may be attributed to the antioxidative and membrane stabilization activities of the fraction. The observed effects compared favorably with that of vitamin C and are informative of the fraction's ability to prevent progression of renal pathological conditions and preserve kidney functions as evidently supported by the histological analysis. Although the effects were prominently exhibited in the fraction-pretreated groups, the overall data from the present findings suggest that the fraction could prevent or extenuate acetaminophen-mediated oxidative renal damage via fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms.
Mean percentage protection offered by Zea mays, Stigma maydis and vitamin C against acetaminophen-induced renal injury as assessed by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. The percent protection was calculated as follows: 100 × (values of APAP treatment ? values of test)/(values of APAP treatment ? values of control). abcBars with different superscripts for each parameter are significantly different (p < 0.05). CSEAF: corn silk ethyl acetate fraction.
Alfalfa grass
Medicaginis herba
Main compound(s): 3,5’-digluko-3-metylomiricetin, 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranosideapigenin, 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranosidetricin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3’-O-glucoside, Apigenin, Chrysoeriol, Gentisic acid, Hovetrichoside C, Luteolin, Pterosupin, Rutin, Tricin
Chloroform Extract of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Downregulating ERK/NF-?B Signaling and Cytokine Production
Ki-Choon Choi, Jung-Min Hwang, Sung-Jun Bang, Beom-Tae Kim, Dong-Hern Kim, Minseon Chae, Seung-Ah Lee, Gi Jun Choi, Da Hye Kim and Jeong-Chae Lee
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is commonly used as a traditional medicine and functional food. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of alfalfa and the mechanisms involved. The chloroform extract of alfalfa aerial parts inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated immune responses more than ether, butanol, or water soluble extracts. Treatment with 1 ?g/mL LPS increased nitrite concentrations to 44.3 ?M in RAW267.4 macrophages, but it was reduced to 10.6 ?M by adding 100 ?g/mL chloroform extract. LPS treatment also increased the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1? to 41.3, 11.6, and 0.78?ng/mL in culture supernatants of the cells, but these cytokine levels decreased to 12.5, 3.1, and 0.19?ng/mL, respectively, by pretreating with 100 ?g/mL of the extract. ICR mice injected with LPS (30?mg/kg body weight) alone showed a 0% survival rate after 48?h of the injection, but 48-h survival of the mice increased to 60% after oral administration of the extract. Subfractions of the chloroform extract markedly suppressed LPS-mediated activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa-B. Cinnamic acid derivatives and fatty acids were found to be active constituents of the extract. This research demonstrated that alfalfa aerial parts exert anti-inflammatory activity and may be useful as a functional food for the prevention of inflammatory disorders.
Sour cherry stem
Cerasi stipes - Prunus cerasus L.
Main compound(s): Benzoic acid
Bioactive compounds of sweet and sour cherry stems obtained by subcritical water extraction
Jaroslava Švarc?Gajić, Víctor Cerd?, Sabrina Clavijo, Ruth Suárez, Pavle Mašković, Aleksandra Cvetanović, Cristina Delerue?Matos, Ana P Carvalho, Vesna Novakov
BACKGROUND Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) and sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) contain substantial amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenolics, and their stems have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. However, comparative data on the composition of sweet and sour cherry stems using the same analytical methodologies are limited. Moreover, there is no data in terms of biological activity of subcritical water extracts of cherry stems. RESULTS AND DISSCUSION Results obtained by using several assays that focused on different mechanisms showed that subcritical water extracts of sour and sweet cherry stems were powerful antiradicals and antioxidants. Anti?proliferative properties measured by MTT (3?[4,5? dimethylthiazol?2?yl]?2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) test showed prominent cytotoxicity against different tumor cell lines. Inhibitory concentrations obtained were in the range 8.38–11.40?µg mL?1. GC–MS (gas chromatography mass spectrometry) analysis showed the presence of alcohols, fatty acids, organic acids and other organic compounds. However, the chemical compositions of the two samples observed were similar, indicating similar chemical composition of sour and sweet cherry stems. CONCLUSION Subcritical water extracts of cherry stem demonstrated excellent biological activity and the potential to be used for pharmaceuticals or supplements due to confirmed high antioxidant, antiradical and antitumor activity. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
Marrubii albi herba
Main compound(s): Alyssonoside, Apigenin, Apigenin O-glucoside, Apigenin O-glucuronide, Ballotetroside, Chlorogenic acid, Chrysoeriol O-glucuronide, Ladanein, Luteolin O-glucoside, Luteolin O-glucuronide, Verbascoside, Verbascoside-pentoside, Violantin
Anti-proliferative effect of horehound leaf and wild cherry bark extracts on human colorectal cancer cells
Marubium vulgare (horehound) and Prunus serotina (wild cherry) have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory-related symptoms such as cold, fever, and sore throat. In this report, we show that extracts of anti-inflammatory horehound leaves and wild cherry bark exhibit anti-proliferative activity in human colorectal cancer cells. Both horehound and wild cherry extracts cause suppression of cell growth as well as induction of apoptosis. We found that horehound extract up-regulates pro-apoptotic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1) through trans-activation of the NAG-1 promoter. In contrast, wild cherry extract decreased cyclin D1 expression and increased NAG-1 expression in HCT-116 and SW480 cell lines. Treatment with wild cherry extract resulted in the suppression of ?-catenin/T cell factor transcription, as assessed by TOP/FOP reporter constructs, suggesting that suppressed ?-catenin signaling by wild cherry extract leads to the reduction of cyclin D1 expression. Our data suggest the mechanisms by which these extracts suppress cell growth and induce apoptosis involve enhanced NAG-1 expression and/or down-regulation of ?-catenin signaling, followed by reduced cyclin D1 expression in human colorectal cancer cells. These findings may provide mechanisms for traditional anti-inflammatory products as cancer chemopreventive agents.
Morphologic changes of HCT-116 cells treated with plant extracts. HCT-116 cells were treated with vehicle, horehound (10 and 100 ?g/ml) or wild cherry extracts (10 and 100 ?g/ml) in the absence of serum. After 24 h, the cells were stained with Giemsa solution and observed by light microscopy at x100 magnification.
An investigation on cardioprotective potential of Marrubium vulgare aqueous fraction against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart
A. Garjani, D. Tila, S. Hamedeyazdan, H. Vaez, M. Rameshrad, M. Pashaii, F. Fathiazad
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of aqueous fraction of Marrubium vulgare hydroalcoholic extract on cardiac parameters in ischaemic-reperfused isolated rat hearts. Materials and methods: The aerial parts of the plant were extracted with methanol 70% by maceration. The water-soluble portion of the total hydroalcoholic extract was prepared with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Afterwards, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoids content of the aqueous fraction were determined. In order to evaluate the effects of the aqueous fraction on cardiac parameters and ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, the Langendroff method was used on male Wistar rats. Harvested hearts were cannulated immediately to the Langendroff apparatus and subjected into 30 min regional ischaemia and 2 h reperfusion, either by a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (KHB) solution or enriched KHB solution with plant extract (10, 20, 40 ?g/mL). Results: The aqueous fraction was found to be a scavenger of DPPH radical with RC50 value of 47 ?g/mL. The total phenolic and flavonoids content of the fraction was 6.05 g gallic acid equivalent and 36.13 mg quercetin equivalent per 100 g of dry plant material. In addition, 40 ?g/mL of Marrubium vulgare aqueous fraction significantly decreased infarct size in comparison to control group. All doses considerably reduced the total ventricular ectopic beats during 30 min of ischaemia. The extract at dose of 40 ?g/mL noticeably decreased the arrhythmias during the first 30 min of reperfusion. Conclusions: The results of the study indicated aqueous fraction of Marrubium vulgare possesses a protective effect against I/R injuries in isolated rat hearts
Asperulae odoratae herba
Asperulae herba
Main compound(s): Apigenin, Caffeoylquinic acid, Dicaffeoyl quinic acids, Kaempherol-di-rhamnosyl-hexoside, Kaempherol ramnohexoside, Protocatechuic acid, Quercetin-hexoside-rhamnoside-hexoside, Rutin
Antioxidant and burn healing potential of Galium odoratum extracts
N. Kahkeshani, B. Farahanikia, P. Mahdaviani, A. Abdolghaffari, Gh. Hassanzadeh, M. Abdollahi and M. Khanavi
This study was conducted to evaluate the burn wound healing and antioxidant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Galium odoratum (L.) Scop. in rats. Second degree burn wounds were induced in six groups of six rats each. Groups 1 and 2 received eucerin and silver sulfadiazine as control and reference standard and groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were given methanolic and aqueous extracts of 15% and 30% (w/w in eucerin base) respectively. The topical treatment was done daily for 14 days. The percentage of wound contraction and histology parameters of healed wounds were observed. The antioxidant potential of both extracts was assessed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. There was statistically significant improvement in wound contraction of animals treated with extracts in comparison to control (p < 0.001). The healed wounds in extracts-treated animals contained less inflammatory cells and had better reepithelialization. Wound contraction and histology parameters were relatively better in aqueous extract (90.68 ± 6.13% and 97.18 ± 4.37% for aqueous extracts of 15% and 30% in comparison to 79.29 ± 9.16% and 91.94 ± 4.14% for methanolic extracts of 15% and 30% respectively). In DPPH assay, both methanolic and aqueous extracts displayed significant antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 148 ?g/ml and 83 ?g/ml, respectively. In conclusion, both extracts had desirable antioxidant potential plus experimentally and histologically ascertained burn wound healing activity, relatively better for aqueous extract.
Anti radical activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of G.odoratum in 30th min determined by DPPH assay. Values are mean ± S.D. of triplicate determinations. # P<0.05 compared to methanolic extract.
Basil leaf
Basilici folium
Main compound(s): Apigenin, Caffeic acid, Caffeoyl -3-O-rutiniside, Caffeoyl ester, Catechin, Catechol, Carnosic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Cinnamyl, Dihydrokaempferol, Dihydroxykaemnipferol-glycoside, Ferulic acid, Luteolin O-glucoside, Protocatechuic acid, Rosmarinic acid
Phenolics Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Sweet Basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.)
Chamila Jayasinghe, Naohiro Gotoh, Tomoko Aoki, Shun Wada
The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) was examined using different in vitro assay model systems. The crude extract was fractionated on a Sephadex LH-20 column, and six fractions were identified. The DPPH scavenging assay system and the oxidation of the soy phosphotidylcholin liposome model system were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of each fraction. Fraction IV showed the strongest activity followed by fractions V and VI. Phenolic compounds responsible for the antioxidative activity of the fractions were characterized by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major antioxidant compound in fraction IV was confirmed as rosmarinic acid by (1)H NMR and characteristic fragmentations in the mass spectrum. Moreover, the native of antioxidant activity of rosmarinic acid in the liposome system was examined. The results showed that one rosmarinic acid can capture 1.52 radicals, and furthermore, the existence of a synergistic effect between alpha-tocopherol and rosmarinic acid was revealed.
DPPH free radical scavenging ability of different fractions (I?VI) separated from O. basilicum and their effectiveness at different concentrations.  
Cinnamon crust
Cinnamomum verum
Main compound(s): Apigenin, Astragalin, Caffeic acid, Catechin, Carnosic acid, Chicoric acid, Chlorogenic acid, Cinnamic acid, Coumarins, Cryptochlorogenic acid, Dicaffeoyl quinic acids, Epicatechin, Ferulic acid, Gallic acid, Hydrocinnamic acid, Homovanillic acid-O-hexoside 1, Isoquercetrin, Kaempferol, Naringenin-C-hexoside, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, Proanthocyanidins, Protocatechuic acid, Quercetin, Rosmarinic acid, Rutin, Syringic acid, Vanillic acid
Cinnamon: potential role in the prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.
Qin B, Panickar KS, Anderson RA.
Metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, elevated glucose and lipids, inflammation, decreased antioxidant activity, increased weight gain, and increased glycation of proteins. Cinnamon has been shown to improve all of these variables in in vitro, animal, and/or human studies. In addition, cinnamon has been shown to alleviate factors associated with Alzheimer's disease by blocking and reversing tau formation in vitro and in ischemic stroke by blocking cell swelling. In vitro studies also show that components of cinnamon control angiogenesis associated with the proliferation of cancer cells. Human studies involving control subjects and subjects with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and polycystic ovary syndrome all show beneficial effects of whole cinnamon and/or aqueous extracts of cinnamon on glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, lipids, antioxidant status, blood pressure, lean body mass, and gastric emptying. However, not all studies have shown positive effects of cinnamon, and type and amount of cinnamon, as well as the type of subjects and drugs subjects are taking, are likely to affect the response to cinnamon. In summary, components of cinnamon may be important in the alleviation and prevention of the signs and symptoms of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular and related diseases.
Beneficial effects of an aqueous extract of cinnamon on glucose, blood pressure, percent body fat, and lean mass of subjects with metabolic syndrome. FBG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, systolic blood pressure.
Antioxidant effects of a cinnamon extract in people with impaired fasting glucose that are overweight or obese.
Roussel AM, Hininger I, Benaraba R, Ziegenfuss TN, Anderson RA.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a dried aqueous extract of cinnamon on antioxidant status of people with impaired fasting glucose that are overweight or obese. METHODS: Twenty-two subjects, with impaired fasting blood glucose with BMI ranging from 25 to 45, were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Subjects were given capsules containing either a placebo or 250 mg of an aqueous extract of cinnamon (Cinnulin PF) two times per day for 12 weeks. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography and plasma antioxidant status was evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Erythrocyte Cu-Zn superoxide (Cu-Zn SOD) activity was measured after hemoglobin precipitation by monitoring the auto-oxidation of pyrogallol and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity by established methods. RESULTS: FRAP and plasma thiol (SH) groups increased, while plasma MDA levels decreased in subjects receiving the cinnamon extract. Effects were larger after 12 than 6 weeks. There was also a positive correlation (r = 0.74, p = 0.014) between MDA and plasma glucose. CONCLUSION: This study supports the hypothesis that the inclusion of water soluble cinnamon compounds in the diet could reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Black tea
Camellia sinensis
Main compound(s): Catechin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Quercetin, Theaflavin, Theanine, Thearubigin
Black Tea Polyphenols: A Mechanistic Treatise
M S Butt, A Imran, Mian K. Sharif, Rabia Shabir Ahmad
Dietary interventions are among the emerging trends to curtail physiological malfunctioning like cancer, diabetes, cardiac complications, etc. The essence of phytonutrients has developed the concept of nutraceuticals at the junction of diet health linkages. In this context, theaflavin & thearubigins are the oxidized derivatives of black tea catechins during fermentation having nutraceutical potential owing to esterification of hydroxyl ring with digallate esters. Theaflavin may influence activation of transcription factors such as NFnB or AP-1 that ultimately hinder the formation of nitric oxide expression gene. Likewise, black tea contains a unique amino acid theanine acts as neurotransmitter owing to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, it boasts immunity by enhancing the disease-fighting ability of gamma delta T cells. Theaflavin & thearubigins act as safeguard against oxidative stress thereby effective in the cardiac functioning. The mechanistic approach of these antioxidants is likely to be associated with inhibition of redox sensitive transcription factors & pro-oxidant enzymes such as xanthine oxidase or nitric oxide synthase. However, their involvement in antioxidative enzyme induction as in glutathione-S-transferases is also well documented. They act as curative agent against numerous pathological disorders by disrupting the electron chain thus inhibiting the progression of certain ailments. Black tea polyphenols established themselves as strong antioxidants due to their standard one-electron potential, and their vitality is dependent on the concentration of polyphenols and pH for their inclusive execution. Present review is an attempt to enrich the readers regarding the health promoting aspects of black tea polyphenols. Concomitantly, it needs core attention of researchers for the exploitations of black tea flavanols as an important dietary constituent for the vulnerable segment.
Thymi vulg. herba
Main compound(s): 4-O-p-Coumaroylqunic acid, Apigenin, Apigetrin, Astragalin, Caffeic acid, Carnosic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Coumaric acid, Coumaric acid-O-hexoside 1, Cryptochlorogenic acid, Dicaffeoyl quinic acids, Ferulic acid, Ferulic acid-O-hexoside, Gallic acid, Hesperetin, Hesperidin, Homovanillic acid, Hydrocinnamic acid, Homovanillic acid-O-hexoside 1, Kaempferol, Naringenin-C-hexoside, Neochlorogenic acid, Nicotiflorin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, Protocatechuic acid, Quercetin, Rosmarinic acid, Rutin, Sinapic acid-C-hexoside, Syringic acid, Vanillic acid, Vanillic acid-O-hexoside
Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices
Qing Liu, Xiao Meng, Ya Li, Cai-Ning Zhao, Guo-Yi Tang, and Hua-Bin Li
Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices—such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin—possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives.
Coriander seed
Coriandri fructus
Main compound(s): Caffeic acid, Ellagic acid, Gallic acid, Kaempferol, Quercetin
Antioxidant, Antihyperglycemic, and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Coriandrum sativum Leaf and Stem in Alloxan?Induced Diabetic Rats
S. Sreelatha R. Inbavalli
In India's indigenous system of medicine, Coriandrum sativum (CS), commonly used as a food ingredient, is claimed to be useful for various ailments. To establish its utility in diabetes mellitus, the present study evaluated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of CS in alloxan?induced diabetic rats. The extracts were shown to contain bioactive compounds including phenolics, flavonoids, steroids, and tannins. The extracts of CS in alloxan?induced diabetic rats were found to significantly lower blood glucose levels. Antidiabetic activity of the CS extracts was compared with the clinically available drug glibenclamide. The levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low?density lipoprotein cholesterol were lower in the extract?treated group and high?density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher than the diabetic control rats. The extracts of CS exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2, 2?diphenyl?2?picrylhydrazyl free radical and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The free radical scavenging effect of the extracts was comparable with that of the reference antioxidants. Furthermore, it also showed an improved antioxidant potential as evidenced by decreased lipid peroxidation and a significant increase in the activity of various antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver of diabetic rats. These results indicate that the extracts could protect liver function and exhibited hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant efficacies in the diabetic rats. These results support the use of this plant extract to manage diabetes mellitus.
Oregano leaf
Origani folium
Main compound(s): Caffeic acid, Catechin, Chlorogenic acid, Chrisyn, Cinnamic acid, Coumaric acid, Epicatechin, Gallic acid, Genistein, Hydrocinnamic acid, Naringenin, Protocatechuic acid, Quercetin, Rosmarinic acid, Syringic acid, Vanillic acid
Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from Oregano: Occurrence, Biological Activity and Health Benefits
Erick P. Gutiérrez-Grijalva, Manuel A. Picos-Salas, Nayely Leyva-López, Marilyn S. Criollo-Mendoza, Gabriela Vazquez-Olivo and J. Basilio Heredia
Several herb species classified as oregano have been widely used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation-related diseases, respiratory and digestive disorders, headaches, rheumatism, diabetes and others. These potential health benefits are partially attributed to the phytochemical compounds in oregano such as flavonoids (FL) and phenolic acids (PA). Flavonoids and phenolic acids are among the most abundant and most studied phytochemicals in oregano species. Epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo experiments have related long-term consumption of dietary FL and PA with a decreased risk of incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to summarize the latest studies on the identification and distribution of flavonoids and phenolic compounds from oregano species and their potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer health benefits.
Rosemary leaf
Rosmarini folium
Main compound(s): 12-methylcarnosic acid, Carnosol, Carnosic acid, Genkwanin, Hispidulin-7-O-glucoside, Rosmarinic acid
Rosemary supplementation (Rosmarinus oficinallis L.) attenuates cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats.
Murino Rafacho BP, Portugal Dos Santos P, Gonçalves AF, Fernandes AAH, Okoshi K, Chiuso-Minicucci F, Azevedo PS, Mamede Zornoff LA, Minicucci MF, Wang XD, Rupp de Paiva SA.
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Dietary intervention on adverse cardiac remodeling after MI has significant clinical relevance. Rosemary leaves are a natural product with antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on morphology and ventricular function after MI is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: To determine the effect of the dietary supplementation of rosemary leaves on cardiac remodeling after MI, male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups after sham procedure or experimental induced MI: 1) Sham group fed standard chow (SR0, n = 23), 2) Sham group fed standard chow supplemented with 0.02% rosemary (R002) (SR002, n = 23), 3) Sham group fed standard chow supplemented with 0.2% rosemary (R02) (SR02, n = 22), 4) group submitted to MI and fed standard chow (IR0, n = 13), 5) group submitted to MI and fed standard chow supplemented with R002 (IR002, n = 8), and 6) group submitted to MI and fed standard chow supplemented with R02 (IR02, n = 9). After 3 months of the treatment, systolic pressure evaluation, echocardiography and euthanasia were performed. Left ventricular samples were evaluated for: fibrosis, cytokine levels, apoptosis, energy metabolism enzymes, and oxidative stress. Rosemary dietary supplementation attenuated cardiac remodeling by improving energy metabolism and decreasing oxidative stress. Rosemary supplementation of 0.02% improved diastolic function and reduced hypertrophy after MI. Regarding rosemary dose, 0.02% and 0.2% for rats are equivalent to 11 mg and 110 mg for humans, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings support further investigations of the rosemary use as adjuvant therapy in adverse cardiac remodeling.
Morphometric study in Sham and infarcted rats with and without rosemary supplementation. A. CSA: cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (p<0.001), B. Microscopic images of CSA H&E stained (evidenced with arrows) of groups SR0, IR0, IR002 and IR02, C. % collagen: p = 0.035, D. Microscopic images of myocytes Picrosirius red stained for collagen (red marks in images) of SR0, IR0, IR002 and IR02. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM. Asterisks (*) represent significant difference between groups (p<0.05). Sample size: SR0 = 23, SR002 = 23, SR02 = 22, IR0 = 13, IR002 = 8, and IR02 = 9.
Green tea
Camellia Sinensis
Main compound(s): Caffeoyl glucose, Caffeoylquinic acid, Catechin gallate, Epicatechin, Epicatechin gallate, Epigallocatechin, Epigallocatechin gallate, Gallic acid, Gallocatechin, Gallocatechin gallate, Hydrocinnamic acid, Kaempferol, Kaempferol 3-O-p-coumaroylglucoside, Kaempferol 3-O-p-coumaroyldirhamnosylhexoside, Quercetin, Quinic acid
Tea (Camellia sinensis) infusions ameliorate cancer in 4TI metastatic breast cancer model.
Mbuthia KS, Mireji PO, Ngure RM, Stomeo F, Kyallo M, Muoki C, Wachira FN.
Background Tea (Camellia sinensis) infusions are widely consumed beverages with numerous health benefits. However, physiological and molecular responses mediating these activities are poorly understood. Method Three replicates of 4TI cancer cell suspension (2.0 × 105 cells/ml) were challenged in vitro with various concentrations of green, black and purple tea infusions to asseses their cytoxicity and associated differentially expressed genes in the cells. Inhibitory activity was tested by using serial dilutions of respective tea infusions in a 96 well ELISA plate. Results Green tea had the highest inhibition on 4TI cells proliferation at a concentration of IC50 = 13.12 ?g/ml. Further analysis of the 4TI cancer cell line treated with tea using 454 pyrosequencing generated 425,696 reads with an input mean length of 286.54. Trimmed sequences were imported on a CLC genomic workbench v7.03 and annotated on a reference mouse genome (Mus musculus strain C57BL/6 J). Results revealed a differential expression of apoptosis related genes in the transcriptome. Casp8, Casp9, Casp3, Casp6, Casp8AP2, Aifm1, Aifm2 and Apopt1 genes were significantly upregulated indicating the process of apoptosis was initiated and executed. Conclusion These findings on caspases offer valuable information on the mechanism of tea as an anticancer agent and will contribute to further research in future novel treatments.
Quantification of the inhibitory concentration (IC50 ?g/ml) of purple, black and green teas on 4TIcancer cells
Clove flower buds
Caryophylli flos
Main compound(s): Caffeic acid, Ellagic acid, Eugenol, Ferulic acid, Gallic acid, Kaempferol, Quercetin, Salicylic acid
Antineoplastic effects of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum L.) in the model of breast carcinoma.
Kubatka P,, Uramova S, Kello M, Kajo K, Kruzliak P, Mojzis J, Vybohova D, Adamkov M, Jasek K, Lasabova Z, Zubor P, Fialova S, Dokupilova S0, Solar P, Pec M, Adamicova K, Danko J, Adamek M, Busselberg D.
It is supposed that plant functional foods, rich in phytochemicals, may potentially have preventive effects in carcinogenesis. In this study, the anticancer effects of cloves in the in vivo and in vitro mammary carcinoma model were assessed. Dried flower buds of cloves (CLOs) were used at two concentrations of 0.1% and 1% through diet during 13 weeks after the application of chemocarcinogen. After autopsy, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of rat mammary carcinomas were performed. Moreover, in vitro evaluation using MCF-7 cells was carried out. Dietary administered CLO caused the dose-dependent decrease in tumour frequency by 47.5% and 58.5% when compared to control. Analysis of carcinoma cells in animals showed bcl-2, Ki67, VEGFA, CD24 and CD44 expression decrease and Bax, caspase-3 and ALDH1 expression increase after high-dose CLO administration. MDA levels were substantially decreased in rat carcinomas in both CLO groups. The evaluation of histone modifications revealed increase in lysine trimethylations and acetylations (H4K20me3, H4K16ac) in carcinomas after CLO administration. TIMP3 promoter methylation levels of CpG3, CpG4, CpG5 islands were altered in treated cancer cells. An increase in total RASSF1A promoter methylation (three CpG sites) in CLO 1 group was found. In vitro studies showed antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of CLO extract in MCF-7 cells (analyses of cytotoxicity, Brdu, cell cycle, annexin V/PI, caspase-7, Bcl-2 and mitochondrial membrane potential). This study showed a significant anticancer effect of clove buds in the mammary carcinoma model in vivo and in vitro.
Changes in average and cumulative tumour volume during the study. Data are expressed as means ± S.E.M. (A), data are expressed as a sum of volumes per group (B).
Main compound(s): Vanillic acid, Vanillin
Evidence of vanillin binding to CAMKIV explains the anti-cancer mechanism in human hepatic carcinoma and neuroblastoma cells.
Naz H, Tarique M, Khan P, Luqman S, Ahamad S, Islam A, Ahmad F, Hassan MI.
Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CAMKIV) is a member of Ser/Thr kinase family, and is associated with different types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Vanillin is a natural compound, a primary component of the extract of the vanilla bean which possesses varieties of pharmacological features including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-tumor. Here, we have investigated the binding mechanism and affinity of vanillin to the CAMKIV which is being considered as a potential drug target for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. We found that vanillin binds strongly to the active site cavity of CAMKIV and stabilized by a large number of non-covalent interactions. We explored the utility of vanillin as anti-cancer agent and found that it inhibits the proliferation of human hepatocyte carcinoma (HepG2) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, vanillin treatment resulted into the significant reduction in the mitochondrial membrane depolarization and ROS production that eventually leads to apoptosis in HepG2 and SH-SY5Y cancer cells. These findings may offer a novel therapeutic approach by targeting the CAMKIV using natural product and its derivative with a minimal side effect.
Red tea
Aspalathus linearis
Main compound(s): Aspalathin, Isoorientin, Isoquercitin, Isovitexin, Nothofagin, Orientin, Rutin, vitexin
Optimized Camellia sinensis var. sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Aspalathus linearis blend presents high antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in a beverage model.
Santos JS, Deolindo CTP, Hoffmann JF, Chaves FC, do Prado-Silva L, Sant'Ana AS, Azevedo L, do Carmo MAV, Granato D.
A statistical optimization study was conducted to obtain a tea containing fermented rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), white tea (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis), and roasted mate (Ilex paraguariensis). An optimal combination of these species was proposed. This optimized tea inhibited 64% the lipoperoxidation in vitro and presented a high phenolic content, especially kaempferol, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, (-)-epigallocatechin, and (-)-epicatechin-2-O-gallate. Indeed, the antioxidant effect was confirmed by decreasing 30% the reactive oxygen species generation in human hepatoma carcinoma cells (HepG2, 100 and 240?µg/mL). In the cell viability assay, the GI50 for human colorectal adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (Caco-2) was about 547?µg/mL and 481?µg/mL for HepG2. The pasteurization process (65?°C/30?min) did not affect the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the optimized tea formulation. The sensory test indicated an acceptability index of 78%, showing that the analytical approach adopted was feasible to develop a phenolic-rich beverage.
Beta vulg. radix
Main compound(s): Ferulic acid, Hydrocinnamic acid, Luteolin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, Protocatechuic acid, Quercetin, Secoisolariciresinol, Syringic acid, Vanillic acid
Betalains increase vitexin-2-O-xyloside cytotoxicity in CaCo-2 cancer cells.
Farabegoli F, Scarpa ES, Frati A, Serafini G, Papi A, Spisni E, Antonini E, Benedetti S, Ninfali P.
Vitexin-2-O-xyloside (XVX) from Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. (BVc) seeds, betaxanthin (R1) and betacyanin (R2) fractions from Beta vulgaris var. rubra L. (BVr) roots were combined and tested for cytotoxicity in CaCo-2 colon cancer cells. XVX was the most cytotoxic molecule, but the combination of XVX with R1 and R2 significantly prolonged its cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity was mediated by the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, as shown by an increase in Bcl2-like protein 4, cleaved Poly ADP-Ribosyl Polymerase 1 and cleaved Caspase 3 levels with a parallel decrease in anti-apoptotic protein B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 levels. R1 and R2, used alone or in combination, reduced oxidative stress triggered by H2O2 in CaCo-2 cells. Betalains dampened cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-8 mRNA expression after lipopolysaccharide induction in CaCo-2, showing an anti-inflammatory action. Our results support the use of a cocktail of R1, R2 and XVX as a chemopreventive tool against colon cancer.
Sweet potato
Helianthus tuberosus
Main compound(s): Caffeic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Lariciresinol, Matairesinol, Pinoresinol, Secoisolariciresinol
Topinambour - nutritional and medical properties of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberoses L.
Horochowska M, Kołeczek E, Zdrojewicz Z, Jagiełło J, Pawlus K.
Topinambour (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also known as the Jerusalem artichoke is a plant, which origins from North America. In XVII century it was brought to the Europe. For ages it was cultivated due to edible tuber and its healing properties.The aim of the article is to present medical properties and application of topinmbour in patient's diet. Many studies were performed on animals to specify medical properties of topinambour. Results show, that topinambour lowers plasma glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. It is believed that these effects are caused by high level of inulin present it its tuber.Inulin effect on the human organism was assessed in many clinical studies. It is thought it has prebiotic features, lowers plasma glucose and intestinal pH level, which results in higher calcium bioavailability. Additionaly, it has a positive impact on the plasma lipid profile, acts as an immunomodulator, affecting digestive systems' limfatic tissue. Due to its characteristics, it can be used in the diet of obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.Recently, it was discovered that topinambour tuber secretion works as a cytotoxic agent contra breast cancer cells.
Hepatoprotective effects of an anthocyanin fraction from purple-fleshed sweet potato against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice.
Choi JH, Choi CY, Lee KJ, Hwang YP, Chung YC, Jeong HG.
The present study was undertaken to examine the protective effects of an anthocyanin fraction (AF) obtained from purple-fleshed sweet potato on acetaminophen (paraceptamol [APAP])-induced hepatotoxicity in mice and to determine the mechanism involved. Mice pretreated with AF prior to APAP administration showed significantly lower increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and hepatic malondialdehyde formation than APAP-treated animals without AF. In addition, AF prevented hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion by APAP, and hepatic GSH levels and GSH S-transferase activities were up-regulated by AF. APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was also prevented by AF, as indicated by liver histopathology findings. In addition, the effects of AF were examined on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1, the major isozyme involved in APAP bioactivation. Treatment of mice with AF significantly and dose-dependently reduced CYP2E1-dependent aniline hydroxylation and CYP2E1 protein levels. Furthermore, AF had an antioxidant effect on FeCl(2)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse liver homogenates and had superoxide radical scavenging activity. These results suggest that AF protects against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by blocking CYP2E1-mediated APAP bioactivation, by up-regulating hepatic GSH levels, and by acting as a free radical scavenger.
Liquiritiae radix mund
Main compound(s): Glabrene, Glabridin, Licochalcones
Licorice flavonoid oil reduces total body fat and visceral fat in overweight subjects: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Tominaga Y, Nakagawa K, Mae T, Kitano M, Yokota S, Arai T, Ikematsu H, Inoue S.
SUMMARY: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate effects of licorice flavonoid oil (LFO) on total body fat and visceral fat together with body weight, body mass index (BMI) and safety parameters in overweight subjects. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, moderately overweight participants (56 males, 28 females, BMI 24-30 kg/m(2)) were assigned to four groups receiving a daily dose of either 0 (placebo), 300, 600, or 900 mg of LFO. Total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and visceral fat area by abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan at baseline and after 8 weeks of LFO ingestion. Body weight, BMI, and blood samples were examined at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks of LFO ingestion. RESULTS: Although caloric intake was similar in all four groups, total body fat mass decreased significantly in the three LFO groups after 8 weeks of ingestion. LFO (900 mg/day) resulted in significant decreases from baseline levels in visceral fat area, body weight, BMI, and LDL-cholesterol. No significant adverse effects were observed.
Marshmallow root
Althaeae radix mund
Main compound(s): Astragalin, Caffeic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Ferulic acid, Hydrocinnamic acid, Hypolaetin-8-0-glucoside, Isoquercetrin, "Isoscutellarein-4'-methylether-8-0-D-glucoside-2""-S03K", Kaempferol, Naringenin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, Protocatechuic acid, Quercetin, Salicylic acid, Sinapic acid, Syringic acid, Vanillic acid
Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the Althaea officinalis L. leaf extract and its wound healing potency in the rat model of excision wound creation
Maryam Rezaei, Zeynab Dadgar, Ali Noori-Zadeh, Seyed Alireza Mesbah-Namin, Iraj Pakzad and Elham Davodian
Objectives: Wound is defined simply as the disruption of the biochemical, cellular, and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Plants and their extracts known as phytomedicine have immense potential for the management and treatment of wounds. Materials and Methods: Due to the undesirable side effects, in the control and treatment of the wound infections, it is recommended to use natural materials such as phytochemicals instead of chemically synthesized drugs. Thus, the aim of this research was to study the anti-microbial and wound healing potential of Althaea officinalis L. hydroalchoholic extract in comparison with ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and penicillin antibiotics on clinical strains as well as pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes under in vitro conditions using micro broth dilution and disc diffusion methods. Moreover, MIC and MBC of its hydroalchoholic extract was also evaluated. Results: The results showed that although Althaea officinalis L. extract was not effective on gram-negative bacteria but it was efficacious on gram-positive bacteria. The extract was also tested in the form of topical administration on excision wound model in rats. In the extract-treated wounds, the wound healing percent was significantly increased in comparison with controls. Conclusions: Based on this research, herbal extract of officinalis L. can be a great candidate for the treatment of gram-positive infections and merits further studies.
Immunocytochemistry photomicrographs of wound repair at different times of treatments in the three groups of rat model of excision wound creation A, B, and C) Wound healing after 7 days of treatment in the sham, zinc oxide, and Althaea officinalis L. hydroethanolic extract-treated groups, respectively. D, E, and F) Wound healing after 14 days in the sham, zinc oxide, and Althaea officinalis L. hydroethanolic extract-treated groups, respectively. G, H, and I) Wound healing after 21 days in the sham, zinc oxide, and Althaea officinalis L. hydroethanolic extract-treated groups.
Ginseng root
Panax ginzeng radix
Main compound(s): Ginsenosides
Effects of Panax ginseng on tumor necrosis factor-?-mediated inflammation: a mini-review.
Lee DC, Lau AS.
Panax ginseng is one of the most commonly used Chinese medicines in China, Asia and Western countries. The beneficial effects of ginseng have been attributed to the biological activities of its constituents, the ginsenosides. In this review, we summarize recent publications on the anti-inflammatory effects of ginseng extracts and ginsenosides on cellular responses triggered by different inducers including endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interferon-gamma and other stimuli. Proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and mediators of inflammation including inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide orchestrate the inflammatory response. Ginseng extracts and ginsenosides including Rb?, Rd, Rg?, Rg?, Rh?, Rh?, Rh? and Rp? have been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties in different studies related to inflammation. Ginsenosides inhibit different inducers-activated signaling protein kinases and transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB leading to decreases in the production of cytokines and mediators of inflammation. The therapeutic potential of ginseng on TNF-?-mediated inflammatory diseases is also discussed. Taken together, this summary provides evidences for the anti-inflammatory effects of ginseng extracts and ginsenosides as well as the underlying mechanisms of their effects on inflammatory diseases.
Effects of Panax ginseng supplementation on muscle damage and inflammation after uphill treadmill running in humans.
Jung HL, Kwak HE, Kim SS, Kim YC, Lee CD, Byurn HK, Kang HY.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether Panax ginseng extract intake would influence exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation responses. Eighteen male college students were randomly assigned to either an RG intake group (RG, n = 9) or a placebo group (P, n = 9). All subjects performed a high-intensity uphill treadmill running task (two rounds of 45 min at 10 km/h speed with a 15 degree uphill slope separated by 5 min of rest). The RG group ingested 20 g/day of Korean red ginseng extract (mixed with 200 ml of water) three times/day for seven days prior to performing the uphill treadmill exercise test and for four days after the treadmill test, while the P group ingested 200 ml of water containing Agastachis Herba on the same schedule. Plasma creatine kinase activity (CK) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured at pre-exercise and 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-exercise, the IL-6 level was also measured at 1 and 2 h post-exercise. To evaluate insulin sensitivity, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed 24 h post-exercise. Plasma CK level in RG was significantly lower than that in P 72 h post-exercise (p < 0.05), and IL-6 level was significantly decreased in RG during the 2 h and 3 h recovery period compared to that of P (p < 0.05). Plasma glucose and insulin responses in RG were significantly reduced compared to those of P (p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that RG supplementation could reduce exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammatory responses, resulting in improvements in insulin sensitivity.
Zingeberis radix
Main compound(s): 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, 10- gingerol, Caffeic acid
Ginger Extract Consumption Reduces Plasma Cholesterol, Inhibits LDL Oxidation and Attenuates Development of Atherosclerosis in Atherosclerotic, Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice
Bianca Fuhrman, Mira Rosenblat, Tony Hayek, Raymond Coleman and Michael Aviram
Oxidative modification of LDL is thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Consumption of nutrients rich in phenolic antioxidants has been shown to be associated with attenuation of development of atherosclerosis. This study was undertaken to investigate the ex vivo effect of standardized ginger extract on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (E0) mice, in relation to plasma cholesterol levels and the resistance of their LDL to oxidation and aggregation. E0 mice (n = 60, 6-wk-old) were divided into three groups of 20 and fed for 10 wk via their drinking water with the following: group i) placebo (control group), 1.1% alcohol and water (11 mL of alcohol in 1 L of water), group ii) 25 ?g of ginger extract/d in 1.1% alcohol and water and group iii) 250 ?g of ginger extract/day in 1.1% alcohol and water. Aortic atherosclerotic lesion areas were reduced 44% (P < 0.01) in mice that consumed 250 ?g of ginger extract/day. Consumption of 250 ?g of ginger extract/day resulted in reductions (P < 0.01) in plasma triglycerides and cholesterol (by 27 and 29%, respectively), in VLDL (by 36 and 53%, respectively) and in LDL (by 58 and 33%, respectively). These results were associated with a 76% reduction in cellular cholesterol biosynthesis rate in peritoneal macrophages derived from the E0 mice that consumed the high dose of ginger extract for 10 wk (P < 0.01). Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages harvested from E0 mice after consumption of 25 or 250 ?g of ginger extract/day had a lower (P < 0.01) capacity to oxidize LDL (by 45 and by 60%, respectively), and to take up and degrade oxidized LDL (by 43 and 47%, respectively). Consumption of 250 ?g of ginger extract/day also reduced (P < 0.01) the basal level of LDL-associated lipid peroxides by 62%. In parallel, a 33% inhibition (P < 0.01) in LDL aggregation (induced by vortexing) was obtained in mice fed ginger extract. We conclude that dietary consumption of ginger extract by E0 mice significantly attenuates the development of atherosclerotic lesions. This antiatherogenic effect is associated with a significant reduction in plasma and LDL cholesterol levels and a significant reduction in the LDL basal oxidative state, as well as their susceptibility to oxidation and aggregation.
Consumption of ginger extract by apolipoprotein E-deficient mice reduces their plasma and lipoproteins levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Results are expressed as means ± SD,n = 3, *P < 0.01 vs. placebo.
Curcuma longa
Main compound(s): Curcumin, Demethoxy-curcumin
Curcumin: An Anti-Inflammatory Molecule from a Curry Spice on the Path to Cancer Treatment
Purusotam Basnet and Natasa Skalko-Basnet
Oxidative damage and inflammation have been pointed out in preclinical studies as the root cause of cancer and other chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer’s disease, etc. Epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that cancer could be prevented or significantly reduced by treatment with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs, therefore, curcumin, a principal component of turmeric (a curry spice) showing strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, might be a potential candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of cancer and other chronic diseases. However, curcumin, a highly pleiotropic molecule with an excellent safety profile targeting multiple diseases with strong evidence on the molecular level, could not achieve its optimum therapeutic outcome in past clinical trials, largely due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability. Curcumin can be developed as a therapeutic drug through improvement in formulation properties or delivery systems, enabling its enhanced absorption and cellular uptake. This review mainly focuses on the anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin and recent developments in dosage form and nanoparticulate delivery systems with the possibilities of therapeutic application of curcumin for the prevention and/or treatment of cancer.
Flow diagram showing inhibitory effect of curcumin on arachidonic pathways.
Valerianae radix
Main compound(s): Ferulic acid, Hydrocinnamic acid
The gamma-aminobutyric acidergic effects of valerian and valerenic acid on rat brainstem neuronal activity.
Yuan CS, Mehendale S, Xiao Y, Aung HH, Xie JT, Ang-Lee MK.
Valerian is a medicinal herb that produces anxiolytic and sedative effects. It was suggested that valerian acts via gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic mechanisms. Previous studies showed binding of valerian extract to GABA receptors, but the functional effect of the binding has not been demonstrated. In this study we evaluated the GABAergic effect of valerian extract and one of its major constituents, valerenic acid, on brainstem neuronal activity in an in vitro neonatal rat brainstem preparation. We first observed that muscimol, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, decreased the firing rate in most brainstem neurons in a concentration-related fashion, 30 micro M produced a 38.9% +/- 3.0% (mean +/- SE) inhibition compared with control values (P < 0.01, 50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)], 2.0 +/- 0.1 microM). This effect was antagonized by bicuculline (10 microM), a GABA(A) antagonist. Then we showed that valerian extract 3 mg/mL induced a 29.6% +/- 5.1% inhibition with an IC(50) of 240 +/- 18.7 microg/mL, whereas 100 microM valerenic acid induced a 22.2% +/- 3.4% inhibition with an IC(50) of 23 +/- 2.6 microM (both P < 0.01). Bicuculline antagonized the inhibitory effects of both the valerian extract and valerenic acid. In addition, pretreatment with valerian extract or valerenic acid decreased the brainstem inhibitory effects produced by muscimol (both P < 0.05), suggesting that these compounds play an important role in the regulation of GABAergic activity. Data from this study suggest that the pharmacological effects of valerian extract and valerenic acid are mediated through modulation of GABA(A) receptor function. Thus, valerian may potentiate the sedative effects of anesthetics and other medications that act on GABA receptors, and presurgical valerian use may cause a valerian-anesthetic interaction. IMPLICATIONS: Valerian is an herb used in treating anxiety and insomnia. We observed that the valerian effects are mediated through brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in a rat brainstem preparation. Thus, valerian may potentiate the effects of anesthetics that act on GABA receptors, and presurgical valerian use may cause a valerian-anesthetic interaction.
Aloe vera
Aloe vera
Main compound(s): 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 4-Ethylphenol acid, 4-Phenyllactic acid, 5-Methoxyprotocatechuic acid, Aloe emodin acid, Benzoic acid, Ferulic acid, Homovanillic acid, Hydrocinnamic acid, Hydro-p-coumaric acid, Isoferulic acid, p-Salicylic acid, Phenylpyruvic acid, Protocatechuic acid, Sinapic acid, Syringic acid, Vanillic acid
Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera
Fatemeh Nejatzadeh-Barandozi
Background The aim of this study was to identify, quantify, and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant capacities, and antibacterial activities of Aloe vera lyophilized leaf gel (LGE) and 95% ethanol leaf gel extracts (ELGE) using GC-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Results Analytically, 95% ethanol is less effective than ethyl acetate/diethyl ether or hexane (in the case of fatty acids) extractions in separating phytochemicals for characterization purposes. However, although fewer compounds are extracted in the ELGE, they are approximately 345 times more concentrated as compared to the LGE, hence justifying ELGE use in biological efficacy studies in vivo. Individual phytochemicals identified included various phenolic acids/polyphenols, phytosterols, fatty acids, indoles, alkanes, pyrimidines, alkaloids, organic acids, aldehydes, dicarboxylic acids, ketones, and alcohols. Due to the presence of the antioxidant polyphenols, indoles, and alkaloids, the A. vera leaf gel shows antioxidant capacity as confirmed by ORAC and FRAP analyses. Both analytical methods used show the non-flavonoid polyphenols to contribute to the majority of the total polyphenol content. Three different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol, and acetone were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of A. vera to screen the antibacterial activity selected human clinical pathogens by agar diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in acetone extracts (12 ± 0.45, 20 ± 0.35, 20 ± 0.57, and 15 ± 0.38 nm) other than aqueous and ethanol extracts. Conclusion Due to its phytochemical composition, A. vera leaf gel may show promise in alleviating symptoms associated with/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes.
The effect of Aloe Vera gel on prevention of pressure ulcers in patients hospitalized in the orthopedic wards: a randomized triple-blind clinical trial.
Hekmatpou D, Mehrabi F, Rahzani K, Aminiyan A.
BACKGROUND: One of the most common orthopedic problems is the incidence of pressure ulcer followed by immobility. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Aloe Vera gel on the prevention of pressure ulcer in patients hospitalized in the orthopedic ward. METHOD: This study is a randomized, triple-blind clinical trial which was done on 80 purposefully selected patients in orthopedic ward in Arak town, Iran, 2016. Patients were randomly assigned into two intervention and control groups based on blocking sampling method. In each group the routine daily cares to prevent bed sores were performed by nurses. In the intervention group in addition to routine nursing care to prevent bed sores, twice a day (hours of 9 and 21) pure Aloe Vera gel on the areas of hip, sacrum and heel were rubbed, but in the control group placebo (gel of water and starch) were used. Then sacral, hip and heel of both groups on days 3, 7 and 10 for of signs of pressure ulcers was evaluated. RESULTS: The mean age of patients in the control group was (42.34?±?12.19) and in the intervention group Was (41.71?±?11.50) years, respectively. In the intervention group 1 patient afflicted with sore of hip and two people with sacral pressure ulcer. In the control group 3 patients affiliated with sore of hip, 8 people with sacral pressure ulcer, and 1 person had pressure sore of heel. Analysis of the data showed that both groups had statistically significant differences in the incidence of pressure ulcers (P?=?0.047). This means that Aloe Vera gel could prevent the occurrence of pressure ulcers in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: Due to the effect of Aloe Vera gel to prevent a rise in temperature, non-blanchable redness, swelling and pain of the skin of regions under study in hospitalized patients in the orthopedic ward, applying of it toward the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients at risk of pressure ulcer development is recommended.
Analysis of variance with repeated measures on the hip (trochanter) temperature
Menthae pip. Folium
Main compound(s): Cynaroside, Diosmin, Eriocitrin, Eriodictyol 7-O-glucoside, Gardenin B, Hesperidin, Isorhoifolin, Luteolin 7-O-rutinoside, Narirutin, Pebrellin, Rosmarinic acid
Antifibrogenic Influence of Mentha piperita L. Essential Oil against CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats.
Ogaly HA, Eltablawy NA, Abd-Elsalam RM.
Essential oils of some aromatic plants provide an effective nonmedicinal option to control liver fibrosis. Mentha piperita L. essential oil (MPEO) have been reported to possess protective effects against hepatotoxicity. However, its effect against liver fibrosis remains unknown. The present study investigated the antifibrogenic potential of MPEO and its underlying mechanisms. Forty male rats divided into 4 groups were used: group 1 served as normal control, group 2 (liver fibrosis) received CCl4 (2.5?mL/kg, IP, twice weekly) for 8 weeks, group 3 concurrently received CCl4 plus MPEO (50?mg/kg, IP, daily, from the 3rd week), and group 4 received MPEO only. MPOE significantly improved the liver injury markers, lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant capacity, CYP2E1 gene expressionand liver histology. Furthermore, MPOE ameliorated liver fibrosis as evidenced by the reduced expression of desmin, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), and SMAD3 proteins. In addition, MPOE counteracted the p53 upregulation induced by CCl4 at both mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, MPOE could effectively attenuate hepatic fibrosis mainly through improving the redox status, suppressing p53 and subsequently modulating TGF-?1 and SMAD3 protein expression. These data promote the use of MPOE as a promising approach in antifibrotic therapy.
Representive TGF-?1 immunohistochemistry in liver tissue of the different experimental groups (×200). (a and d) The normal control (group 1) and MPEO control (group 4) showing weak immunopositive reaction in portal areas. (b) Liver fibrosis control (group 2) showing intense immunostaining in periductal cells in the portal tract, in perisinusoidal cells, around the blood vessels, and in sinusoidal lining cells. (c) MPEO-treated (group 3) showing mild reaction in some perisinusoidal cells. (e) Bar chart represents the TGF-?1 immunohistochemistry in liver expressed as area %. Mean values with different superscripts are significantly different (p < 0.05).
Urticae folium
Main compound(s): Caffeic acid, Catechin, Chlorogenic acid, Ellagic acid, Ferulic acid, Fumaric acid, Hydrocinnamic acid, Isorhamnetin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Naringin, Quercetin, Rutin, Syringic acid, Vanillic acid
Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle
Semih Otles and Buket Yalcin
Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET).
HPLC chromatogram of antioxidant standards. *1: fumaric acid, 2: gallic acid, 3: catechins, 4: vanillic acid, 5: caffeic + chlorogenic acid, 6: syringic acid, 7: p-coumaric acid, 8: ferulic, 9: naringin, 10: rutin, 11: ellagic, 12: myricetin, 13: quercetin, 14: kaempferol, 15: isorhamnetin.
Dandelion leaf
Taraxaci folium
Main compound(s): 4-Caffeoylquinic acid, Caffeic acid, Chicoric acid, Chlorogenic acid, Esculetin, Ferulic acid, Hydrocinnamic acid, Monocaffeoyltartaric acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, Protocatechuic acid, Scopoletin, Syringic acid, Umbelliferone, Vanillic acid
Taraxacum—A review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile
Katrin Schütz, Reinhold Carle, Andreas Schieber
The genus Taraxacum is a member of the family Asteraceae, subfamily Cichorioideae, tribe Lactuceae and widely distributed in the warmer temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. The perennial weed has been known since ancient times for its curative properties and has been utilized for the treatment of various ailments such as dyspepsia, heartburn, spleen and liver complaints, hepatitis and anorexia. However, its use has mainly been based on empirical findings. This contribution provides a comprehensive review of the pharmacologically relevant compounds of Taraxacum characterized so far and of the studies supporting its use as a medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to diuretic, choleretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-carcinogenic, analgesic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-coagulatory and prebiotic effects. Finally, research needs such as quantification of individual Taraxacum constituents and assessment of their pharmacological activities in humans have briefly been outlined.
Humulus lupulus
Main compound(s): Cohumulone, Colupulone, Desmethylxanthohumol, Xanthohumol
Assessment of the genetic diversity of wild hops (Humulus lupulus L.) in Europe using chemical and molecular analyses
Josef Patzak, Vladimír Nesvadba, Alena Henychová, Karel Krofta
The goal of this study was to characterize European wild hops (Humulus lupulus L.) by chemical and molecular genetic analyses in comparison to cultivated hops and North American wild hops. The contents of alpha and beta and acids varied from 0.45% to 5.55% and from 1.22% to 5.73% in European wild hops, respectively. Low bitter acid contents, alpha/beta acid ratios of lower than 1.0 and cohumulone content not exceeding 30% were typical as well as for traditional European cultivars. The lower myrcene content, the presence of farnesene and high selinene content were typical for European wild hops. We evaluated molecular genetic diversity in European wild hops by microsatellite and gene-specific markers and found that this variability did not correlate with the chemical characteristics. Our phylogenetic analysis confirmed overlapping variability and close genetic relationships in Europe, the separation of wild hops from the Caucasus region and the high diversity of North American wild hops.
Birch leaf
Betulae folium
Main compound(s): Acacetin, Apigenin, Aromadendrin-glucoside, Astragalin, Catechin, Chicoric acid, Chrysoeriol, Flavonol dimethyl ether, Hydrocinnamic acid, Hyperoside, Isoquercetrin, Isorhamnetin, Kaempferol, Kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, Ladanein, Miquelianin, Myricetin, Myricetin-3-O-galactoside, Myricitrin, Naringenin, Pentahydroxyflavone trimethyl ether, Quercetin, Quercetin 3-O-arabinoside, Quercitrin, Tetrahydroxyflavone dimethyl ether
Betula pendula leaves: Polyphenolic characterization and potential innovative use in skin whitening products
M.P.German?a, F.Cacciolabc, P.Donatodc, P.Dugocd, G.Certoa, V.D'Angeloa, L.Mondellocd, A.Rapisarda
The research of new tyrosinase inhibitors is currently important for the development of skin whitening agents, particularly, birch leaves extracts are included in many skin cosmetic products. In this study, the potential ability of Betula pendula leaves ethanolic extract (BE) was evaluated on mushroom tyrosinase activity. Results showed that BE was capable to inhibit dose-dependently l-DOPA oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase. The inhibition kinetics, analyzed by Lineweaver–Burk plots, showed a noncompetitive inhibition of BE towards the enzyme, using l-DOPA as substrate. The inhibitory mechanism of BE as studied by spectrophotometric analysis, demonstrated its ability to chelate copper ion in the active site of tyrosinase. In addition, BE exhibited Fe2+-chelating ability (IC50 = 614.12 ± 2.14 ?g/mL), reducing power and radical-scavenging properties (IC50 = 137.22 ± 1.98 ?g/mL). These results suggest the usefulness of birch leaves extracts in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for their skin-whitening and antioxidant effects. Determination of the polyphenolic compounds in BE extracts was afterward achieved by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. A total of 25 compounds were positively identified, through the complementary analytical information, and are reported in such a matrix for the first time. Knowledge on the qualitative composition and contents of these natural sources in fact represents mandatory information, for rational consumption and correlation of the beneficial effects to the specific amounts.
Salvia officinalis
Salviae folium
Main compound(s): 6-Hydroxyluteolin 7-glucoside, Apigenin, Cynaroside, Luteolin 3'-glucuronide, Luteolin O-glucuronide, Rosmarinic acid, Sagecoumarin, Sagerinic acid, Salvianolic acid, Violantin
Antioxidant activities of polyphenols from sage (Salvia officinalis)
Yinrong Lu, L. Yeap Foo
The antioxidant activities of the sage polyphenols, consisting of flavone glycosides and a range of rosmarinic acid derivatives, were evaluated for their capacity to scavenge DPPH and superoxide anion radicals and also to reduce Mo(VI) to Mo(V). The rosmarinic acid derivatives all showed potent antioxidant activity in three test systems and their capacity to reduce Mo(VI) to Mo(V) and their superoxide radical scavenging activities, with values ranging from 220 to 300 SOD units/mg, in particular, were 4–6 and 15–20 times greater than trolox, respectively. The high SOD activity of rosmarinic acids could be attributed to the radical-scavenging catechols and the xanthine oxidase-inhibiting caffeic acid moieties contained in them. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids was variable and those with a catechol B-ring (luteolin glycosides) were more active than those without (apigenin glycosides).